Literature and establishment formation of trust between the leadership

Literature review

The literature review consists of
Forth parts. The first part describes the concept of Administrative
empowerment, while the second part explains job satisfaction; The third also
explain creativity, while the fourth and final part present studies the
relationship between the three variables, in Institutions of Higher Education.

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1.     Administrative empowerment

In the early fifties there were
many research trials, which emphasizes the importance of the participation of
employees at the level of the production process and decision-making, it was
thought then that the partnership in decision-making leads to ease of
implementation, and so was addressed during the eighties steadily towards more
partnership. Until the term (Empowerment) noon for workers in the late teens,
but met with widespread and considerable success in the application in the late
nineties, which led some thinkers to call this era (Empowerment era). (Hifny
and ismail, 2013)

Empowerment is one of the factors
that influence employees’ performance (GanjiNia, et al., 2013). The
empowerment is a modern management philosophy focused on interest workers in
supervisory lines of the organization because of their direct relationship
variables work which requires the need to empower them and training them to
allow them opportunities to act quickly in critical situations. (Blanchard, et
al. 1996)

Clearly, there is broad agreement
among most scholars that the “enable” is based on the configuration
of the bridges of trust between management and employees and provide them with
strong “authorities” and their participation in decision-making and
administrative constraints and organizational break “routine” full
faith that the training of the human race and that he and his allegiance is to
compete and achievement of excellence (Gutierrez, 1995).

 Research has shown that employee empowerment
enhances the value of work for individuals, increases job satisfaction,
loyalty, performance, level of service delivery, and contributes to work
productivity/ effectiveness and success, creating an organizational culture to
encourage implementation of Managerial Empowerment, increasing the attention to
the personal and job needs, and establishment formation of trust between the
leadership and employees (Eylon & Au, 1999; Fulford & Enz, 1995; Koberg
et al., 1999: Al-Madi and Nseirat, 2011: Alrqub, et, 2010).

In other studies, empowerment
refers to the individual beliefs of employees about their role in relation to
the organization. At the individual level of analysis, empowerment is
characterized as an enabling process. Employee empowerment results from the
internalization of a framework that is grounded in personal meaning and is
responsive to the larger aims of the organization. (Bandura, 1989; Spreitzer,
1995: Lau, 2010: Harrim, Alkshali, 2008).(Harahsheh, Hiti, 2006) concentration
to encouragement of personnel to accept the idea of empowerment.

Several researchers also suggest
that empowered employees have higher levels of organizational commitment, as
empowered employees tend to be highly concentrated, self-motivated, and
resilient (Avolio, Zhu, Koh, & Bhatia, 2004; Kraimer, Seibert, &;
Spreitzer, 1995; Thomas & Velthouse, 1990).

Historical of Empowerment

The historical evolution of the
construct known as empowerment began with the human relations movement, which
focused attention on the individual worker and his or her interactions with
other workers (Short & Greer, 1997). The human relations movement was born
in the 1920’s as a result of the Western Electric Studies (Owens & Valesky,
2007). These studies sought to determine what level of illumination in the
workplace would result in maximum efficiency for production. Contrary to what
was expected, the results led researchers to an understanding that human variability
is one determinant of productivity; these studies also concluded that some
management styles elicited greater worker satisfaction as well as feelings of
affiliation, competence, and achievement for the worker which, in turn, led to
greater productivity than in the past.

Owens and Valesky explained that
these influential findings spurred supervisors to examine and practice the
human relations concepts of democratic supervision, involvement of employees,
motivational techniques, morale, and group dynamics, and focused on
participative decision making rather than on the classical bureaucratic
organizational practices of the past.

Empowerment emerged in its modern
form in the late 1980s. Peters and Waterman’s “In Search of Excellence” (1982)
laid the foundations for the modern empowerment movement as organizations
pursued advantage in an increasingly competitive global economy, and by change
thinking the jobs become more complex, for this, organizations give employees
greater flexibility in their workplaces. Such restructuring was seen as prudent
and essential to increased organizational efficiency and to meeting customers’
needs. (Wilkinson, 1998). in 1990s, a lot of interests have been created to the
mentioned concept among scholars, academic boards and management authorities
and organizations (manesh, et, 2014).

The definition of Empowerment

There are many definitions that
explain the concept of administrative empowerment according to the researchers,
and the multiplicity of angles that look of them, Some of them defined
empowerment as  ” the delegate
authority to the staff put out their own goals, and make decisions related to
its completion, and solving the problems that hinder the achievement of those
goals (Moorhead, & Griffin, 2001). According to (Menon, 2001), definitions
of empowerment can be grouped under three perspectives:

a.    Empowerment
as an act: the act of granting power to the person(s) being empowered;

b.    Empowerment
has been considered as a process: the process that leads to the experience of

c.    It
has been also considered as a psychological state that manifests as cognitions
that can be measured.

Others researchers define empowerment
“Enable someone to assume greater responsibilities and do the authorities
through training and confidence and emotional support.” (Murrell, &
Meredith, 2000), Melhem (2009) defined the
empowerment as “an internal state of mind that needs to embrace and represent
this situation by the individual in order to have self-confidence and
satisfaction with the abilities he has to help him in taking decisions and
testing the results that would be up to it”, Conger and Kanungo (1988)
described empowerment as the “process of enhancing feelings of self-efficacy
among organizational members through the identification of conditions that
foster powerlessness and through their removal by both formal organizational
practices and informal techniques of providing efficacy information