Linux This contrasts with the proprietary (or closed source)

Linux is a computer operating system (OS), like Microsoft Windows
or Apple Mac OS. Unlike those two, however, Linux is built with a collaborative
development model. The aim of Linux is creating
a free pseudo-Unix OS which is founded by Richard Stallman in 1983 1. This system is an operating was founded in 1983 with the goal of
creating a complete and free pseudo-Unix operating system by Richard Stallman 1.
We use the term “Linux” to refer to the Linux Kernel, but also the
set of programs, tools, and services that are typically bundled together with
the Linux Kernel to provide all of the necessary components of a fully
functional operating system. Some people, particularly members of the free
software foundation, refer to this collection as GNU/Linux, because many of the
tools included are GNU components. However, not all Linux installations use GNU
components as a part of their operating system.

It is volunteers, employees of companies,
governments and organizations from all over the world who create this OS and
associated software. The phrase open source implies that Linux is free to use
and free to contribute in its development where everyone is beneficiary of this

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Because of this, we like to call it free software, or socially
responsible software. Closely related is the concept of open source software is
collectively abbreviated as FOSS. This contrasts with the proprietary (or
closed source) development model used by some software companies today.






In this article, I would like to give you a summary of the Linux
and Open source.

Based on Intel x86 architecture, Linux was developed for
personal computers and eventually developers incorporated it into other
platforms to expand its application and capabilities. 2 Becase of the dominance of the Linux kernel-based Android OS
on smartphones,Linux has the largest installed base of all general-purpose
operating systems.3 The unix operating system wasconceived and implemented in
1969,at AT&T’S Bell Laboratories in the United States by Ken
Thompson,Dennis Ritchie,Douglas Mcllroy,and Joe Ossanna.16

On servers and other big iron systems e.g.
mainframe computers, it is Linux which has the lead between different available
OSs. As a proof, it is reported that top 500 supercomputers are only using this
OS and all other competitors are eliminated in this field 4,5. However, it is
not popular for desktop computer users and the market share for Linux is only
2.3% 6,7. The Kernel-based chrome OS runs the chromebook and chromebook
dominates US K-12 education market. The market share in the market of notebooks
is also 20% for this OS in US 8. In the context of embedded software systems
where OS is typically built into the firmware and it is highly tailored to the
system, Linux is a widely used and effective OS which is used in TiVo and
similar DVRs, network routers, facility automation control, TVs 9,10, video
game consoles and smartwatches 11. However, many smartphones and tablet
computers run Android and other derivatives of Linux 12.

The success of Linux is one of the salient and
prominent examples of free and open source software collaboration.

Besides the Linux distributions designed for general-purpose use
on desktops and servers,distributions may be specialized for different purposes
including : computer architecture support , embedded systems,stability,security,localization
to a specific region or language,targeting of specific user groups,support for
real time applications,or commitment to a given desktop environment. Moreover, only free software is deliberately included by some
distributions. There are almost 600 of Linux distributions and more than 80% of
them are in active development 17. The wide variety of forms in distributions
is the result of the huge availability of the software. This includes those
suitable for use on desktops, servers, laptops, so on 18,19 as well as
minimal environment used in embedded systems 20,21. In addition, Fedora, open
SUSE and Ubuntu are examples of commercially backed distributions and there are
distributions that are entirely community-driven distribution like Debian,
Slackware, Gentoo and Arch Linux. There are some distributions e.g. Gentoo that
are distributed mostly in source form and compiled locally during installation,
whilst, most distributions come ready to use and pre-compiled for a specific instruction
set 22,13. The trend of popularity of Linux on standard desktop computers and
laptops is increasing 14. Currently, a graphical user environment is included
in modern distributions with two most popular environments i.e. KDE Plasma
Desktop and Xfce since Feb. 2015 15.

What is Bash?


Bash is the shell, or
command language interpreter, for the GNU operating system .


Shell can simply be
defined as a macro processor for command execution.

A shell is simply a macro processor that executes commands. The term
macro processor means functionality where text and symbols are expanded to
create larger expressions.The name is an acronym for
the ‘Bourne-Again Shall’, a pun on Stephen Bourne, the author of the direct
ancestor of the current Unix shell sh, which appeared in the Seventh Edition
Bell Labs Research version of Unix.

Bash, which is portable
like other GNU software, is the default shell and GNU is responsible for
providing other shells. Almost every version of the Unix is now runs Bash and
there are a few other operating systems for MS-DOS, OS/2, and Windows Platforms


What are the benefits of Open Source?

The first thing that comes to our mind when we hear the word Open
Source is free or low cost! But in this post, we will examine the benefits of
Open Source in addition to its low cost.

The first thing that comes to our mind when we hear the word Open
Source is free or low cost!

But in this post, we will examine the benefits of Open Source in
addition to its low cost.

– Security:

Most of us do not know much about using Open Source software. For
example, a mobile phone, tablet, and so on, which runs Android OS. Of course
Android does not fully support Open Source, but Android uses Linux as its
Kernel. Accordingly, when a large number of people see the code, it will be
resolved very quickly if a cavity or a disruption occurs.

Product openness allows the products to be publicly available, but
otherwise they are only available to the manufacturer, and the tests will be
limited, and when the security vulnerability is detected, more time will be
needed to make it. Is.

– Quality:

Which one looks better: An application made by several
programmers, or an application made by thousands of programmers?

Countless programmers and users are working to complete the
security of Open Source software and create many features and innovations for
their products.

In general, Open Source knows the user’s needs well, because users
can manually build it. In other words, users and developers make something they

– Customization feature:

Do not try anything that is in the possession of the owner …!

As noted above, business users can remove pieces of Open Source
software and change their needs. Since the code is open, it is very easy to
change the code or add a series of new features.

– the freedom:

When businesses went to Open Source, they freed themselves from
hard-line vendors. Customers of some vendors were forced to accept seller’s
views such as: requirements, dictations, prices, preferences, and timing.

– flexibility:

The upgrade depends on you, not on the decisions of some product
makers …

When you use monopoly software from a company, you are on a
treadmill that is still upgrading your software and hardware, to the extreme


Open Source generally uses less resources, which means that it
usually allows you to use the old hardware as well.



Today, with the development of computer networks, the need to use
operating systems that have the necessary capabilities to manage network
environments is more and more evident. Unix operating system has proven its
ability to do such an important job because of its prominent features. Learning
and familiarity with the capabilities and commands of this operating system can
be useful for all those who are somehow dealing with network

Unix operating system, like other operating systems, controls and
controls the activities and resources of the computer, such as processor, main
memory, side memories, input and output devices, etc. However, due to the
simultaneous use of different people and the simultaneous execution of multiple
programs, this Management will be much more difficult, therefore, the system
administrator needs to have the highest ability to manage and control system

The system administrator is the only one who works with things and
provides better utilization of the system, so in addition to the management
spirit, you have to have the specialized information necessary to perform his

Multiuser functionality – Multitasking in Unix has caused most
users who do not have the single-user operating system to meet their needs to
the UNIX operating system and thus use the system day-to-day. Unix is
expanding. Also, the madular structure of Unix makes it possible for the user
to add or remove parts of it, without affecting the rest of the system, and
thus the user’s preferred environment ( user friendly.