Lee Xin Chinn 178587
ARC 4902 Topical Study, Bachelor of Science in Architecture, Faculty of Design and Architecture,
University Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM, Serdang Selangor, Malaysia
Collaborative Consumption is a sustainable consumption based on sharing, bartering, lending, renting and borrowing. This paper investigates the collaboration consumption model and its contribution in building sense of resilience and liveable community. It analyses suitable way to address social problems and issue at Bandar Tasik Selatan by using collaborative consumption and sharing concept to enhance and strengthen relationship between communities. In addition, sustainability can be achieved by maximize and suitable utilization of resources based on environmental and economic dimension. The results show productivity role of collaborative consumption for sustainability in certain dimensions and act as peer-to-peer platform for facilitate community participation, interaction, identity and building trust.
Keywords: Collaborative Consumption, Sharing Economy, Sustainable Consumption, Resilience Community, Peer-to-Peer
Nowadays, agricultural land leading to reduce due to the growing population and cities. In addition, growing population also causes destruction of biodiversity, loss of community life and less social cohesion. Social desire to develop consumption for sustainable economic because of the popularity of sharing economy, based on peer- to- peer exchange of services and product.
According to Rachel Botsman (2010), a global thought leader on the sharing economy, founder of Collaborative Lab and author of What’s Mine Is Yours, argues that “the rapid explosion in everyday forms of collaboration by sharing, bartering, lending, renting, gifting, and swapping being reinverted through latest technologies and peer- to- peer marketplaces in ways on a scale never possible before”. In doing so, they are saving money, space, and time, making new friends, building offline communities and peer- to- peer trust.
Collaborative consumption is part of sharing economy, it is systems of organized involves sharing, bartering, lending, trading, renting, gifting and swapping between individuals. Collaborative consumption is a sustainable alternative due to its potential to prevent unnecessary new purchases and promotes reuse, recycle, reduce and repair. In addition, collaborative consumption is used of product and services to support resilient communities and economies as well as built more resilient and sustainable cities. “Resilience- UN Habitat for a better urban future” state that Resilience is the ability of human settlements to withstand and to recover quickly and bounce back to a stable state from any hazards.
The objectives of this study are using concept of collaborative consumption to build resilient and liveable city and to provide more opportunities for community to strengthen their relationship. Collaborative consumption is a contribution of sustainable consumption to help community develop and used resources with sustainable way. Collaboration consumption emphasis on cooperation and relationship between community in creating resilient community through mutualizing, exchanging and sharing products.
Urban Transformation Centres (UTC) is a one-stop centres in major cities across the country that to provide a wide range of government services to the urban population in one convenient location and under one roof. Concept of collaboration consumption can integrate with urban transformation centres so government and community can cooperate and help each other in building a resilient and liveable city.
2.0 Literature Review
2.1 Resilience City
“Hong Kong 2030+: A Smart, Green and Resilient City Strategy” state that a “resilient city” refers to a city that can reduce the damage and risk incurred from disasters, accompanied with the ability to bounce back to the stable state. (cited in The United Nations). Objective of “Green City” as known as “Eco-City” and “Low-Carbon City” are to reduce carbon footprint whilst not compromising development potential.
Resilience means the ability of human settlements to withstand and to recover quickly from any hazards. Resilience have ability to quickly bounce back to a stable state and able to against crises, reducing risks and damage from disasters. The concepts of vulnerability, adaptation, and resilience are widely applied by practitioners engaged in fields related to social-ecological systems (Vogel et al., 2007) and studied by academics (Folke, 2006). Resilience is defined as “the ability of a system to absorb disturbance and still retain its basic function and structure” (Walker and Salt, 2006, p. 1). “Vulnerability is the degree to which a system is likely to experience harm due to exposure to a hazard, either a disturbance or a stress” (Turner et al., 2003, p. 8074). “Adaptation is a process of deliberate change in anticipation of or in relation to external stimuli and stress” (Nelson et al., 2007, p. 395).
2.2 Collaboration Consumption
According to Rachel Botsman (2010), a global thought leader on the sharing economy, founder of Collaborative Lab and author of What’s Mine Is Yours, argues that “people use technology to form online peer communities to realise the benefits of access to products and services over ownership. She calls this groundswell ‘Collaborative Consumption’ and argues that businesses and governments should embrace it to revolutionize business and society.
Botsman and Rogers (2010) noted that “collaborative consumption” and “sharing economy” are based on culture of access, use and re- circulation for used goods as alternatives to traditional private ownership. Collaboration consumption have potential in social connection, ecological sustainability and economic opportunity and this can develop in work practices, living arrangements, service provision, household production and learning. For instance, Hub culture centre, couchsurfing, co-housing, co-working, Skillshare, Landshare and Toolshare.
According to “Collaborative Consumption: Building a Sense of Community” stated that collaborative consumption based on people with similar needs and interest can gather together and share or exchange less-tangible assets such as time, space, and skills. Concept of collaborative consumption can help individuals to meet their needs and expand opportunities to builds social capital and build up collaboration mindset among community. It is a connection between community that can bring people back into relationship with one and others and built resilient and livable city.
Rachel Botsman (2015) discuss that “sharing economy” becoming mainstream ideas that are innate to community in a relatively short period of time. She state that “Sharing, battering, swapping, renting, lending and selling directly to one other is what we did in villages and markets for thousands of years”. The hyper-individualistic system of consumerism is the now construct which develop to collaborative and sharing system. Furthermore, “The rise of collaborative consumption: A critical assessment of resistance to capitalism and its ideologies of self and property” note that technology of communication and internet are growing faster and popularity. People and technology form a formidable new infrastructure — the ‘Internet of Things’ – connecting everything and everyone” (Rifkin, 2014). Due to capitalism and the existing technology take place in the form, “sharing economy” has developed. Collaborative are marked by the consumer ability to connect, produce and share their own service, physical product and space thus becoming ‘prosumers’ and disrupting the workings of capitalist markets (Rifkin, 2014)
In research conducted in “Design for collaborative consumption” discuss that resource-saving model of ‘using rather than owning’ which present problems in how we perceive attachment to our products. ‘Cultural shift is required to place value on having a need mat as opposed to owning a product’ due to people tend to associate high symbolic value to the act of ownership of goods. This condition allows for the opportunity to investigate the prospect of applying knowledge gained around emotional and empathetic design to further the research into what methods and studies are needed to allow for this shift.
According to “How to Design for the Sharing Economy” discuss about re-thinking maintenance to prolong product lifecycle and allow for multi-user scenarios. Collaboration stimulates concurrent usage among different users, when multiple user interact with a multitouch surface or similar interfaces. These interaction can be parallel multitasking in which multiple users interact with same product doing different task.
To address the research questions an extensive observation of the community neighbourhood in Bandar Tasik Selatan and an investigation of some websites and journals help identify the key representations of sustainability conveyed by consumers, building sense of resilience and liveable community. The research methodology in this report is using qualitative research method.
3.1 Observation of community neighbourhood in Bandar Tasik Selatan
Figure 1: Local community in Bandar Tasik Selatan (Source: Author, 2017)
Figure 2: Public spaces in Bandar Tasik Selatan (Source: Author, 2017)
Figure 1 show the local community of different classes which are lower, middle and upper class in Bandar Tasik Selatan. Figure 2 show the public spaces in Bandar Tasik Selatan. There are less public and social area at Bandar Tasik Selatan, there only have a sport complex DBKL and lack of equipment neighbourhood parks near to housing area. Neighbourhood parks are limited as compared to number of residences in most of the landed housing area. In addition, there are many institutions at Bandar Tasik Selatan such as primary and secondary schools, kindergarten, government institute and college. A well-facilitated public recreational and social area are required by the community at Bandar Tasik Selatan. Public and social area can strengthen relationship between local community of different classes so can create resilient and liveable city.
3.2 Investigation of Websites and Journals
The research methodology was qualitative from some research orientations were used: Collaboration Consumption (Botsman and Rogers, 2010) and Sharing Economy (Schor, 2014). The methodological choices were guided by the following research assumptions:
l Sustainable perspectives on collaborative consumption
l Peer-to-peer platform to strengthen relationship of community
l Facilitate communication with different range of populations
Collaborative consumption is based on “economy of sharing or renting products and services which enable access over ownership. It is reinventing not just what we consume but how we consume.” (Botsman and Rogers, 2010). The theory of ‘collaborative consumption’ define that before internet and technology, reinvention of traditional industry behaviors – renting, loaning and sharing are impossible taking place in ways.
Collaboration consumption includes three systems which are product service systems, collaborative lifestyles and redistribution that people can share goods and services instead to pay for access. For example, product service systems like carpooling, goods rental or bicycle sharing. Redistribution such as pre-loved collaboration markets and collaborative lifestyles like skill sharing workshop and urban farming. The sharing economy can be understood as part of a wider movement towards platform-based “collaborative consumption” (Botsman and Rogers, 2010). The function of collaborative platform is to easy exchange and sharing of product and service. The reason to provide a platform for user due to create space of identity to provide products and to communicate with customers, so they can communicate and peer-to-peer with strangers. Figure 3 show that three systems of collaborative consumption.
Figure 3: Systems of Collaborative Consumption
(Source: Botsman and Rogers (2010).)
Figure 4: Examples of sharing economy companies
(Source: D.L. Yohn (2015).)
Figure 4 show the examples of sharing economy companies. Sharing economy can help to prevent overconsumption and promotes sharing usage of resources. For instance, Airbnb not only provide cheaper and affordable housing alternatives, it also encouraged the experience in meets with new peoples.
Table 1: Collaboration Consumption typology (Source: Garrett, A., Straker, K. and Wrigley, C. (2017).)
There are six different industries were picked such as transportation, accommodation, food, education, employment and services. This is to make sure results could lay claim to understanding the entire situation. These industry groups are most popular industries in the emerging collaborative consumption and daily activities. Table 1 shows that each company categorized by industry and collaborative consumption typology.
4.0 Findings and Analysis
In Bandar Tasik Selatan, facilities and amenities which required by various classes of people are different such as family need transportation, healthcare, food, public area and education, while worker need transportation, internet and food. The facilities and amenities can collaborate and sharing by various classes of people in Bandar Tasik Selatan to prevent scarcity of resources. The majority group at Bandar Tasik Selatan are made by family, they can share and collaborate facilities and amenities with others group by using collaborative consumption. Collaborative consumption can address social issues by sharing community spaces, goods, skills and knowledge in one area.
Table 1 indicates that collaborative lifestyles are the majority in collaborative consumption typology. Sharing have reflected society shift towards to collaborative lifestyles and practices. It is not just physical things can be shared, people with similar interests are gather together to share and exchange less tangible things like time, space and skills. For example, skills sharing workshop and urban farming are the example of collaborative lifestyles, people can gather together to learn new knowledge and skills. It is act as a peer-to-peer platform for community to communication and exchange idea so that can increase relationship among community. It also can facilitate communication between different range of populations. Kim Gaskins, content director at Latitude Research has observed that “Sharing represents a fundamental paradigm shift in how people consume from hyper consumption to collaborative consumption which driven by connective technologies, economic recession and environmental consciousness.”
There are several motivational factors that caused society shift from hyper consumption towards to collaborative consumption. The motivational factors are sustainable perspectives on collaborative consumption, peer-to-peer platform to strengthen relationship of community and facilitate communication with different range of populations.
4.1 Sustainable perspective on Collaborative Consumption
4.1.1 Economic sustainability
In economic dimension, sharing economy can be explain as maximizing product’s productivity. Products are available for many people is better that being used several times by one person. This is because sharing economy can save money and time, generate extra income for the owner and reduce impact on the environment. The concept of sharing economy is quite universal in business and effects varies kind of industries. For example, industries group that emerging collaborative consumption are transportation, accommodation, food, education and services. According to The New Sharing Economy- Latitude state that “economy has heightened awareness around purchasing decisions, stressing practicality over consumerism and caused participants with low income more likely to engage in sharing behaviour and feel positively towards the idea of sharing. They felt more comfortable sharing amongst anyone who joins a sharing community.”
4.1.2 Environmental sustainability
Sharing economy and collaborative consumption can help people to reduce costs, overconsumption and environmental impact by utilizing shared resources. In environmental dimension, collaborative consumption can be seen through by multi-use of products and simultaneous use of product by multiple people. For example, carbon dioxide emissions can be reduced by sharing cars. Sharing meals with other also can help generate less waste by sharing on water, gas, electricity and food products.
4.2 Peer-to-peer Platform to Strengthen Relationship of Community
The concept of Sharing Economy are forces people to push the boundaries of their lives and turn consumers into active members of societies. For instance, sharing economy is not only borrow and lend goods but also a peer-to-peer platform to strengthen relationship of community and trust building. Shelby Clark, founder and CEO of Relayrides states that “you just think of the number of car on the road, the resource that we have in our own communities is so massive. What the peer-to-peer model does is it really allows us to leverage that instead of starting from scratch and building our own fleet.” Peer-to-peer sharing have potentially unbounded scalability by access to more resources we already available and used more efficiently rather that manufacturing more new goods.
4.3 Facilitate communication with different range of population
The concept of Collaborative consumption not only sharing products and services but also improving communication between different range of population and building trust between each other. Botsman and Rogers (2011) states that collaborative lifestyles require to “shed certain amount of hyper-individualism and replace it with neighbourliness, if we let go a bit of our individualism, we have plenty to spare.” Collaborative consumption not only reducing strain on the environment but also interactions to build communication, connection and trust between strangers who may eventually become friends. For example, some skills sharing workshop can facilitate interaction between diversified population such as teaching foreign languages, baking class, playing instruments, urban farming and others. Community time banks and co-ops, where expertise and skills are pooled, shared and exchanged are quickly increase in popularity.
Sharing is a basic part of human life, sharing culture can makes possible for virtually anything such as skills, knowledge, goods, spaces and social reach. The rise of Collaborative Consumption made people are no longer consumers but instead become users, borrowers and contributors. Part of findings and analysis indicated that Collaborative consumption is developing new practices based on second life for products such as second-hand or pre-loved products, reuse, recycle, resell and on sharing purchases such as shared product services. It also shows that collaborative consumption is capable of generate sustainable of economic and environment. Figure 5 show the percentage of online consumers willing to participate in sharing communities. It shows that the number of consumers willing to participate in sharing community is high especially at Asia-Pacific area.
Figure 5: Percentage of online consumers willing to participate in sharing communities(Source: F. Richter (2015).)
The issues at Bandar tasik Selatan are rapid growth population had cause scarcity of land for amenity and facility and lack of social and public area for residents to interact and involve in community activities. By using concept of collaborative consumption, social issues can be addressed by sharing community spaces, goods, skills and knowledge in one area, provide more opportunities for community to strengthen their relationship through various kind of activities and encourage public interest in public space through spatial arrangement.
Collaborative consumption concept can combine with urban transformation centres (UTC) so that can help individuals meet their needs and expand their universe of opportunities, it also builds social capital and community resilience. Collaborative consumption can act as connections within a community that help boost resilience and bring people back into relationship with one another by peer to peer communication.
In conclusion, collaborative consumption has potential in creation of resilient, liveable, sustainable communities and forging interpersonal relationships. It also can address social issues like rapid growth population and scarcity of land-used by sharing and collaborate community spaces, goods and services. The sustainable consumption idea can maximize the utilization of resources and encourage social, environmental and economic dimension with sustainable and resilience development. Collaborative consumption not only sharing local resources, goods, skills and services, it also as key vehicle for enhancing community participation, peer-to-peer interaction, building trust and community identity. The ideas of sharing and collaborative consumption concept can contribute to create sustainable and resilience communities, while also provide opportunity for local neighbourhood development at Bandar Tasik Selatan.
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