Leading to 8.5 million in 2009 from 6.5 million

Leading transportation problems in Malaysia initiated by therapid growth of population and high vehicle ownership in Malaysia. The numbersof registered private vehicle ascended to 8.

5 million in 2009 from 6.5 millionin 2005 as stated by Road Transport Department (2011). Thus, the introductionof park and ride will help to sooth the problems related to traffic. Cairns(1997) stated that, increasing vehicle ownership in most develop country hadcause rising in road users thus contribute to unsolvable traffic problems.Norlida et al. (2004) in Shazwani et al.

Best services for writing your paper according to Trustpilot

Premium Partner
From $18.00 per page
4,8 / 5
4,80
Writers Experience
4,80
Delivery
4,90
Support
4,70
Price
Recommended Service
From $13.90 per page
4,6 / 5
4,70
Writers Experience
4,70
Delivery
4,60
Support
4,60
Price
From $20.00 per page
4,5 / 5
4,80
Writers Experience
4,50
Delivery
4,40
Support
4,10
Price
* All Partners were chosen among 50+ writing services by our Customer Satisfaction Team

(2011) elaborates, urban transportsplanners confronted the issues of scarce land and limited funds in urban areaby taking effective and efficient land use plan strategy, for better mobilityand accessibility as well as to balance its increasing demand alongside withdemand of spatial development. Therefore, by building park and ride facilitywill capture the problem. In conjunction with thedefinition of Park & Ride (PR) Bilal et al. (2006) defined that, PRfacilities are combination of two mode of transportation where the commuters atfirst will travelling by car and then continue the journey with publictransportation at the station. The facilities are said to be as one of theprincipal means to address transport problems in urban areas.  In United Kingdom, bus based PR schemes havebeen exist over the past 40 years as mentioned by Meek (2010) whilst according to Noel(1988) as cited in Lam et al.(2001), PR facility is a means of travel demandmanagement in many western countries since 1930s. He added, PR primaryobjective is to encourage modal change on the transport network.

He also statesthat, the facility should draw motorist in private vehicles transfer to highoccupancy vehicle such as busses, van pool or train which have higher occupancymode. Topic on traffic issues has been discussed since a long time ago. According to Hsu (1975), a number of functional problems inherent in the random-routesystem are approaching crisis amount when there are more cars on the road. Atthat time, the most common problems are again environmental pollution,bottleneck traffic and scarce urban parking.

As for the solution, the authorityhas proposed to improve the present transportation system by introducing PRprogrammes which typically combining express bus services in many urban areas.Hsu (1975) also mentioned, PR is a system which promotes the usage of publictransportation as the passenger commute to the city centre by not drivinghis/her car but park their vehicle at the PR station. Dijk and Montalvo (2011)found that, PR facility has become popular among local authorities as a way toadding up more parking supply in city centre.Farhan and Murray(2006) stated, PR services usually provide commuters with bus service alongexpress or local transit routes to central business district or otherlocations. According to Borhan et al., (2011), when a public transportation isnot profitable as the demand is low and together have less density ofpopulation, PR could be used. The facilities also could be located at the mainroutes closer to the city centre before the congestion starts.

Moreover, asstated by Borhan et al. (2011), PR been practically applied in many countriesand cities as a way of demand management of transportation and successfullyhave achieved some results. Again, in Borhan et al.

(2001), the main purpose ofPR facility is to encourage the shifting of transportation mode, from privatecars to public transportation and supply good services. In Xueping et al.(2012), defines PR incorporates the private vehicle into the public transitsystem, which allows motorist to avoid the traffic congestion together with thehigh cost of parking in city centre. On the other hand, Sharifah et al. (2011)had mentioned that, by approaching PR schemes, traffic problems can beenencountered as how the system has been implemented in many developed countriesand concurrently will boost the use of public transportation.