Leading transportation problems in Malaysia initiated by the
rapid growth of population and high vehicle ownership in Malaysia. The numbers
of registered private vehicle ascended to 8.5 million in 2009 from 6.5 million
in 2005 as stated by Road Transport Department (2011). Thus, the introduction
of park and ride will help to sooth the problems related to traffic. Cairns
(1997) stated that, increasing vehicle ownership in most develop country had
cause rising in road users thus contribute to unsolvable traffic problems.
Norlida et al. (2004) in Shazwani et al.(2011) elaborates, urban transports
planners confronted the issues of scarce land and limited funds in urban area
by taking effective and efficient land use plan strategy, for better mobility
and accessibility as well as to balance its increasing demand alongside with
demand of spatial development. Therefore, by building park and ride facility
will capture the problem.
In conjunction with the
definition of Park & Ride (PR) Bilal et al. (2006) defined that, PR
facilities are combination of two mode of transportation where the commuters at
first will travelling by car and then continue the journey with public
transportation at the station. The facilities are said to be as one of the
principal means to address transport problems in urban areas. In United Kingdom, bus based PR schemes have
been exist over the past 40 years as mentioned by Meek (2010) whilst according to Noel
(1988) as cited in Lam et al.(2001), PR facility is a means of travel demand
management in many western countries since 1930s. He added, PR primary
objective is to encourage modal change on the transport network. He also states
that, the facility should draw motorist in private vehicles transfer to high
occupancy vehicle such as busses, van pool or train which have higher occupancy
mode. Topic on traffic issues has been discussed since a long time ago.
According to Hsu (1975), a number of functional problems inherent in the random-route
system are approaching crisis amount when there are more cars on the road. At
that time, the most common problems are again environmental pollution,
bottleneck traffic and scarce urban parking. As for the solution, the authority
has proposed to improve the present transportation system by introducing PR
programmes which typically combining express bus services in many urban areas.
Hsu (1975) also mentioned, PR is a system which promotes the usage of public
transportation as the passenger commute to the city centre by not driving
his/her car but park their vehicle at the PR station. Dijk and Montalvo (2011)
found that, PR facility has become popular among local authorities as a way to
adding up more parking supply in city centre.
Farhan and Murray
(2006) stated, PR services usually provide commuters with bus service along
express or local transit routes to central business district or other
locations. According to Borhan et al., (2011), when a public transportation is
not profitable as the demand is low and together have less density of
population, PR could be used. The facilities also could be located at the main
routes closer to the city centre before the congestion starts. Moreover, as
stated by Borhan et al. (2011), PR been practically applied in many countries
and cities as a way of demand management of transportation and successfully
have achieved some results. Again, in Borhan et al. (2001), the main purpose of
PR facility is to encourage the shifting of transportation mode, from private
cars to public transportation and supply good services. In Xueping et al.
(2012), defines PR incorporates the private vehicle into the public transit
system, which allows motorist to avoid the traffic congestion together with the
high cost of parking in city centre. On the other hand, Sharifah et al. (2011)
had mentioned that, by approaching PR schemes, traffic problems can been
encountered as how the system has been implemented in many developed countries
and concurrently will boost the use of public transportation.