Law Essay

Well, politics is meant for a happy and virtuous life of the citizens of the country and it would mean the aiming at a given good (National Cake) (Miller, 2011 However, in some ways we have moved beyond the virtuous life especially in the well-being of the political community and that of the citizens who make it.

Many Ugandans have involved themselves in olitics, but some have not had a good or safe landing yet some others are happy and living a joyous life since they are involved in politics. This has created a situation of satisfactory and dissatisfaction at the same time a result of inefficiency among the citizens. What is the problem then? Very important yet ignored, is the issue of the common good which is meant to benefit Ugandans as citizens, talked about by Aristotle as the “Eudaimonia” in which each and every man(citizen) must participate in politics, if they are to be happy and virtuous(MiIIer, 201 1).

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This topic is in fact a contribution to olitics, highlighting Aristotl‚s Political Theory of the Causes and examining its application to Ugandan Politics and Politicians regarding political growth. The topic is: The Application of Aristotles Political Theory of the Causes to the Current Political Situation in Uganda. The choice of AristotWs Political Theory, aims at an examination of Uganda’s Political system as a process of the citizens to reach their wants, show whether Uganda’s Political system is related to Aristotle’s Political Theory of the Causes, and to show the applicability of the theory upon Uganda as a nation.

For a lot that transpires n Uganda, is a result of leadership set-up, which is to help Ugandans live a happy and virtuous life. The Researcher has therefore chosen to base the research on Aristotle’s Political Theory of the causes, because he highlighted clearly and in depth how the City-state should relatively be, which this research entreats too. The researcher alms at exposing a most complete community where authority is exercised through the constitution, where law and justice are to control man in harmony provided there is a smooth interaction between the Causes. . 1 Back ground of the study 1. 1. 1 Historical back ground Uganda as a nation has quite a rich history about its political life. The history Of its politics is going to be discussed from the time of its independence, up to the current date. Here it flows as it is according to APRM Country Review Report, (2009). Uganda People’s Congress and Kabaka Yekka forged an alliance to oppose the Democratic Party, subsequently winning the independence election of 1962 on October 9th 1962.

Militon Obote became the first Prime minister of Independent Uganda and Mutesa II became the President. Obote forged an alliance which was genius but found it difficult to maintain he friendship with the king of Buganda as his main political ideology was to create a united republic. In 1966, Edward Mutesa II the Kabaka was expelled, and forced into exile (England). A constitutional crisis arose also in 1 966, which brought into the time light one particular personality that was to impact significantly on the history of the country.

On January 25th, 1971, Colonel Idi Amin overthrew Obote who was at a conference in Singapore and took over as head of state. In April 1979, Professor Yusufu Kironde Lule was chosen by the Ugandan exiles to be the president but he enjoyed no support of the new emerging army and was icked out of office only after sixty-eight days. Godfrey Binaisa was handpicked as a compromise replacement in June 1 979 and in May 1980, he was shown the door. In September 1980, Milton Obote and his Uganda People’s Congress won the elections and he was sworn in president on 1 lth December 1980.

Unhappy with the election results, Yoweri Museveni together with a band of 26 young men retreated into the bushes of Luweero and started what was to be a long campaign of guerrilla warfare. The violence then eventually led to the overthrow of the Obote government by Tito Okello on 27th July 1985. This ed to the suspension of the constitution, Parliament dissolved, and Okello was sworn in as president. Mean while, Museveni’s guerillas gained more support and more control in crucial areas, where-as Okello’s military army lost ground at the hands of its free-riding army.

Because of the intense military struggle, National Resistance Army moved closer to the city and on the 26th day of January 1986, National Resistance Army overran Kampala. Three days afterwards, Museveni was sworn in as the president of Uganda. 1. 1. 2 Contextual Back ground According to the Uganda Information Center (2013), by February 26th 1986, he entire country was under control of the National Resistance Army which was being led by Yoweri Kaguta Museveni who was sworn in as the president of the Republic of Uganda. The audious task of rebuilding the entire country and its human fabric from scratch began.

To enable this task, political parties were suspended and Uganda was governed by an all-inclusive Movement system. A lot was to be achieved over the next eight to ten years. The National Resistance Army/ Movement however continued to face the challenge of reactionary UNLA forces especially in the northern part of the country. In 1 995, a new constitution was promulgated creating a non-party all inclusive Movement System of government. LJnder this system, political parties remained in abeyance. Elections to most political offices were by universal suffrage.

Marginalized groups like the women, the disabled, the youth and workers were given special slots on all administrative units of Government. The military was also given representation in parliament. The aspect of keeping this system was to be reviewed by referendum every 4 years. General elections were held in 1 996 under the Movement System and Yoweri Museveni was returned as President of Uganda. By this election, he became the very first Ugandan to be directly elected to the post by universal suffrage. In 2001, he was returned by popular mandate to the Office of President.

In July 2005, a national referendum was held in which the people of Uganda resolved to return to multi-party politics. The result of the referendum in effect marked an end to the Movement System of government. On February 23rd 2006, multi-party elections were held for both the office of president and for parliament. President Yoweri Museveni of the National Resistance Movement (NRM) won the presidential elections and the NRM took the highest number of seats in parliament. On February 1 6th 2011, multi-party elections still were held for both the office of the president and for parliament.

Still President Yoweri Museveni of the National Resistance Movement (NRM) won and the NRM still took the highest number of seats in parliament. 1. 1. 3 Conceptual Back ground The research is based on Aristotle’s concept of the City-state, which is in a matter-form compound of a particular population (citizen-body) in a given territory (material cause) and a constitution (formal cause). The constitution itself is fashioned by the lawgiver and is governed by politicians, who are like artisans (efficient cause), and the constitution defines the aim of the city-state (final cause) (Barker, 1 931 1. 1. Theoretical Back ground The Theoretical back ground is just talking about Aristotle’s discussion of politics and what he thought about a political community as it is according to (Mulgan, 1977). Aristotle’s politics is a philosophical work, which is believed to be influential in human affairs. Aristotle discusses the city (polis) as a political community (koinoniapolitike) as opposed to other types of communities. Aristotle comes to conclude that the highest form of community is the polis because men are “political animals. ” Aristotle believes that politics is practical knowledge, which is so useful if people act appropriately on it.

This presupposes his thought that young men will usually act on the basis of their emotions, rather than according to reason since acting on practical knowledge requires the use of reason. Aristotle believes that politics needs experience, for one need to know the actions which life demands of him, yet are based on the subject matter of the discussion. This is the very reason as to why he advocated for the elimination f women and slaves from the political issues. Aristotle discusses the relationship between the city and man with a view that political rule (any kind of rule) is only different in terms of size, but it is run in the same way.

Aristotle talks about a citizen as a person who has power to take part in the judicial administration of the state that is the body of citizens sufficing for the purpose of life. Aristotle then talks about the various constitutions, which lead to the distribution of power to aim for the common good or deviate those who would wish to aim for the well-being Of only a part Of the State. 1. Problem statement This study examines the political community. Politics is a fundamental aspect that has been minimally respected in Uganda, and probably benefited few citizens but not all.

The aim ofthis study therefore is to find out people’s perceptions of the current political system, and then try to sensitize citizens about their role in achieving happiness in their country. The researcher wishes to do this by discussing how a state is moving on currently, and how it could be governed smoothly basing on Aristotle’s Political Theory of the Causes. The Causes bring the citizenly body together as a city-state (material ause) with the help of the constitution (formal cause) through the rulers (efficient cause) to reach happiness (final cause), which happiness is a sign of harmony under peace (Miller, 2011). . 3 Objectives of the Study 1. 3. 1 General Objective Application of Aristotle’s political Theory of the Causes to the Political Community of Uganda. 1. 32 Specific Objectives To investigate whether Uganda’s Political system is in line with Aristotle’s concept of the City-State. To find out whether the Political Theory can help Uganda to build up its political ideologies. To establish the applicability of Aristotelian political Theory of Causes upon Uganda as a nation. To suggest some recommendations and expose areas for further research regarding the topic, which can help the politicians and citizens in the country. . 4 Scope of the study Aristotle’s studied the City-State drew principles concerning how a City-state could be governed and lead people to general happiness. Aristotle based his Theory on the four Causes which he develops in his Metaphysics. According to Simpson (1998), a City-state is explained by Aristotle in terms of his four Causes as follows: It is a kind of community (Koinonia), which is the collection f parts having some function and interests in common. Hence, a community is made up of parts, which Aristotle describes in various Ways in different contexts. ltimately, the City-state is composed of individual citizens, who, along with natural resources, are the material cause out of which the city- state is fashioned. The formal cause of the city-state is its constitution (politeia). Aristotle defines the constitution as an ordering of the inhabitants of the City-state (Miller, 2011 He also speaks of the constitution as the form of the compound or whole. He argues that whether the community is the ame over time depends on whether it has the same constitution (Miller, 201 1). This means that a constitution is a way of life.

The existence of the City-state also requires an efficient cause, who is the ruler (Miller, 201 1 Aristotle is of a view that any community to have order, it must have a ruling authority. This ruling principle is defined by the constitution as; something which sets criteria for political offices, particularly the sovereign offices. On a deeper level, there must be an efficient cause to explain why a City-state acquires its constitution in the first place. Aristotle says that the person, who irst established the City-state, is the cause of very great benefits. This person was definitely the lawgiver (nomothetes), who founded the constitution.

Aristotle compares the lawgiver or the politician more generally, to an artisan (demiourgos) who fashions material into finished products (Miller, 201 1). Furthermore, Miller (201 1) reports that the notion of final cause dominates Aristotle’s politics, because every City-state is a sort of community, yet every community is established for the sake of some good. The community also has the most authority of all and includes all people’s aim at the good with the ost authority. This is what we call the political community. Aristotle states that the City-state comes into being for the sake Of life but exists for the sake of good life.

The theme that the good life or happiness (eudemonia) is the proper end of the City-state recurs throughout the politics (Miller, 2011 Briefly, a city-state is matter in form compound of the citizen-body in a given craftsmen (efficient cause), and the constitution defines the aim of the city- state (final cause). 1. 5 Justification of the Study Surely, Uganda today is facing many challenges due to the political isharmony, but does society fully know how the disharmony is caused and how the people can get involved to bring in harmony?

Therefore, this study is intended to show the application of Aristotle’s political theory of the Causes to the current political situation in Uganda. This research sought to study politics, since the political life of any country is the basis of development and growth of status. Many people do not wish to involve themselves in politics, but their avoidance of politics may be the cause of the challenges they are facing. The resultant findings of this research study can be employed to upplement information Of Policy makers (Efficient Cause), and the citizens (material cause) to create harmony in the State.

The research will also provide some information to the pool of other information about Aristotle’s politics and its application to the current political situation. CHAPTER 2. 0 Introduction According to Miller (2011) Politics is a word from Greek, Politikos which means “of, or pertaining to, the city or state”. As a term, it means the art or science of running governmental or state affairs, including behavior within civil government (internet dictionary, 2011).

Politics is also an art or science of overning political entities such as; a nation, and the administration and control of its eternal and external affairs (Internet Dictionary, 2011). This chapter will comprise of the literature on Aristotles Political Theory especially how it has been analyzed and applied. The first thing to note is that Politics is guided by the constitution which caters for; leaders, masses and the resources both in poor and rich status which are to keep the state in balance.

The constitution also guards against corruption and oppression (Miller, 2011 The greatest realization to make when studying Aristotle’s politics is “The end r goal of politics is the best of ends; and the main concern of politics is to engender a certain character in the citizens and to make them good and disposed to perform noble actions” (Nicomachean Ethics at 1099b30 Politics consist of social relations involving authority or power, and to the methods or tactics used to formulate and apply policies.

Politics is about the actions of human beings in communities, though it may be influenced by ethics (Clayton, 2011 ). We are going to realize that politics is like a walk of life which we cannot avoid, but rather just accept it and co-operate with the authority so s to attain harmony. In looking at a review of the literature concerning studies on politics, important past research in this area can be divided into two main parts largely corresponding to the objectives of the study: study of Aristotle’s political Theory, and application of the Theory Of the Causes to the different government systems.

However, the second category will provide the application of the Theory to Uganda’s current political system. 2. 1 Study of Aristotle’s Political Theory Aristotle’s view of politics is cited in the basic text “The Politics” which is a ranslation of his work by different authors who have also criticized it and commented on his approach. “To Aristotle, a Political Theory is neither a distinct subject from moral theory nor the application of moral theory to the political sphere but rather it is a discipline ancillary to moral theory.

Additionally, a Political Theory is conceived normally to identify the kind of forms of society, which are either more or less conducive to the achievement of that good, so as to explain the defects of the imperfect forms, and to suggest how those defects might be remedied” (Barnes, 1995) According to he Britannica Encyclopedia (1 974), Aristotle’s Politics is an account of nature and society, in which he analyzes society as if he was a doctor and prescribes remedies for its ills.

Further, Aristotle admires balance and moderation and aims at a harmonious city under rule of law. By his analysis as a doctor, Aristotle will later in the discussion be realized emphasizing practical knowledge. Clayton (2011) asserts that: “The Politics makes frequent reference to political events and institutions from many cities, drawing on Aristotle’s students’ research. Aristotle’s theories about the best ethical and olitical life are drawn from substantial amounts Of empirical research.

These studies, and in particular the Constitution, will be discussed in more detail below (Who Should Rule? ). ” According to Miller (2011), Politics is a practical science, since it is concerned with the noble action or happiness of the citizens (although it resembles a productive science in that it seeks to create, preserve, and reform political systems). Aristotle thus understands politics as a normative or prescriptive discipline rather than as a purely empirical or descriptive inquiry.

Simpson (1997) supports Millers’ statement when he tates that: “politics needs experience for one needs to know the actions which life demands of him, which are based on the subject matter of the discussion”. When we talk of citizens, in Aristotle’s context, Citizens are distinguished from other inhabitants, such as resident aliens and slaves; and even children and seniors are not unqualified citizens (nor are most ordinary workers). After further analysis, he defines the citizen as a person who has the right (exousia) to participate in deliberative or judicial office (Miller, 2011).

According to Carnes Lord (1984) politics is about the action of human beings n communities, though it may be influenced by Ethics. He continues and says that politics is practical knowledge as Aristotle said and that it is so important and useful if we act on it appropriately. Research shows that this to a greater extent is true because the actions of people determine the kind Of political system to be used. Additionally, Barnes (1995) states that; politics is like the activity of the soul in accordance to excellence.

That is; the excellent realization of those capacities which are distinctive of human life, especially capacities of practical and theoretical rationality. ish to say that the capacities in this sense are the needs, which people gain due to the good governance they are having. This is because the political system in which they live may make them thrivers or failures. 2. 1. 1 City-State According to Compleston (1985) though the concept of the Greek State is a conception that can be and has been exaggerated, it is a richer and truer conception of the state than that of Herbert Spencer.

Because the state exists for the temporal well-being of its citizens, which is for a positive and not merely for a negative end (p. 352). The New Encyclopedia Britannica (1974) sserts that; Aristotle naturally thinks in terms of the City- State, which he regards as the natural form of civilized life, social and political, and the best medium in which men’s capabilities can be realized. Aristotle further more asserts that no one would wish to live in isolation, without friends, and therefore a good human life must be communal life, (Barnes, 1995).

When describing how a state comes to be, Compleston (1985) asserts that the family is the primitive community that exists for the sake of life, for the supply of men’s everyday wants, and when families come together, they form a village. When villages come together to form a larger community which is self- sufficing, the state is formed. Compleston is supported by Pojman (1998) who says that; when several villages are united in a single complete community, large enough to be nearly or quite self-sufficing the State comes into existence, originating in the bare needs of life and continuing in existence for the sake of a good life.

This is in fact very true, because no one can be a self- provider of all that he or she needs in life without the hand of the people around him or her. We as human beings we need each other to get that we o not have and what we cannot produce for ourselves. In describing the nature of the state, Morgan (1992) asserts that: “Since the nature of the state is to be a plurality, and intending to greater unity, from being a state, it becomes a family, and from being a family, an individual; for the family may be said to be more one than the state, and the individual than the family.

Therefore, we ought not to attain this greatest unity even if we could, for it would be the destruction of the state. He continues and says that a state is not made up of only so many men, but of different kinds of men; for similar o not constitute a state because it is not like a military alliance” (p. 392). support Morgan when he says that a state is made up of different kinds of men, because the difference brings in the love for acquisition of the missing quality or commodity.

The state is prior to the family and to the individual because it is a self-sufficing whole, yet an individual or a family are not self- sufficient, (Compleston, 1985). He further quotes Aristotle saying “he who is unable to live in society, or who has no need because he is sufficient for himself, must be either a beast or a god” (p. 351). According to Miller (2011 ne can also explain the existence of the City-State as a kind of community (koinnia), that is, a collection of parts having some functions and interests in common.

Hence, it is made-up of parts, which Aristotle describes in various ways in different contexts: as households or economic classes (e. g. , the rich and the poor), or demes (i. e. , local political units). However, ultimately, the city-state is composed of individual citizens, who, along with natural resources, are the “material” or “equipment” out of which the city-state is fashioned. Indeed every state is a kind of community established with a view o some good, because everyone always acts in order to obtain that which they think is good.

Research has shown that Aristotle was right to assert that; “the ethical treatises are practical enquiries directed towards the good life, an aim which, given the social nature of human beings, cannot be achieved except in the context of a political society’ (Barnes, 1995). Having stated the aim of the City-State being to promote the good life, Aristotle insists that it can be achieved under the rule of law (Clayton, 2011). This will be looked at in our forth-coming discussion, as we shall be looking at the Constitution.

Miller 201 1) says that “since we see that every City-State is a sort of community and that every community is established for the sake of some good, (for everyone does everything for the sake of what they believe to be good), it is clear that every community aims at some good”. In addition, the community, which has the most authority of all and includes all the others, aims highest. That is, at the good with the most authority. This is what is called the City-State or political community (Barnes, 1995). Additionally, Compleston (1985) asserts that man can only live a good life in any full sense only through the state.

Moreover, since good life is man’s natural end, the state should be called a natural society. However, the above statement is criticized by (Morgan, 1992) who asserts that; “the good of the thing is that which preserves them, hence it is evident that a City is not by nature are in that sense which some persons affirm; and that what is said to be the greatest good of cities is in reality their destruction”. Having stated that “The end [or goal] of politics is the best of ends; and the main concern of politics is to engender a certain character in the citizens and to make them good and disposed to perform noble actions.

Clayton (2012) asserts that: “Most people living today in Western societies like the United States, Canada, Germany, or Australia would disagree with both parts of that statement. We are likely to regard politics (and politicians) as aiming at ignoble, selfish ends, such as wealth and power, rather than the “best end”. And many people regard the idea that politics is or should be primarily concerned with creating a particular moral character in citizens as a dangerous intrusion on individual freedom, in large part because we do not agree about what the “best end” is. ” 2. 1. 2 Constitution

After realizing that the end of the City-State is to achieve the common good which Aristotle calls the final end, I wish to show how this end can be archived best according to Aristotle’s view. According to him, Aristotle calls the Constitution the politeia (Miller, 2011). Aristotle defines the constitution (politeia) as a way of organizing the offices of the city-state, particularly the sovereign office. The constitution thus defines the governing body, which takes different forms: for example, in a Democracy, it is the people, and in an Oligarchy, it is a select few (the wealthy or wellborn) (Miller, 2011).

A constitution was defined as the organization of the polis, in respect of its offices generally, but especially in respect of that offices particular office which is sovereign in all issues (Barker, 1974). In addition, to Kabwegere (1992), a constitution is the system of laws and customs established by sovereign power of a state for its own guidance. He continues that; “it has no cultural contents for the country in which it is supposed to be the source of guidance, but national leaders do not respect the constitution and there is manipulation of the constitution by the national leaders for personal ggrandizement'(p. 29). However much the constitution is the formal cause, Miller (201 1) asserts that: “The formal cause of the city-state is its constitution (politeia). Aristotle defines the constitution as “a certain ordering of the inhabitants of the city-state”. He also speaks of the constitution of a community as “the form of the compound” and argues that whether the community is the same over time depends on whether it has the same constitution. The constitution is not a written document, but an imminent organizing principle, analogous to the soul of an organism.