Knowledge personal knowledge. They argue that knowledge is highly

Knowledge transfer and knowledge sharing
as concepts were used interchangeably in the early work presented after
Nonaka’s Harvard Business Review article with knowledge transfer being used
more. The author that adopted the term ‘Knowledge Sharing’ was Melissa M.
Appleyard in 1996 (Paulin and Suneson, 2012). Here, she included both
comparisons on the industry level of interaction (by comparing knowledge
sharing in the semiconductor industry with knowledge sharing in the steel industry)
and on a national level (Japan is compared to the US) using individual
respondents. Other researchers in the same stream are Dyer and Nobeoka (2000).
Their findings include the statement that Toyota’s relative productivity
advantages were explained in part by their ability to create and sustain
network-level knowledge sharing processes.

perspectives that are strong in the Knowledge sharing (KS) stream of research
are psychological and the sociological. Cabrera and Cabrera (2002), for example,
included the psychological notion of social dilemmas when analyzing the
inclination of individuals to share knowledge with other individuals regardless
of the fact that the company they work for has invested in specific technology
to enable such knowledge sharing.

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S., Green, S. D., Weller, S. J., & Newcombe, R. (2003) have a strong focus
on personal knowledge. They argue that knowledge is highly individualistic and
that it is embedded in specific social contexts. This article is a decent case
of the course within the information that is centered around the individual
level setting particular subjective learning (Fernie et al, 2003). Another example of this stream is when knowledge
sharing between individuals in organizations is examined. Here, four major
factors that influence Knowledge sharing (KS) were identified as:

of knowledge,
to share,  
to share and culture
work environment (Ipe, 2003).

Wang and Noe (2010) presented an in-depth
review of articles on individual-level knowledge sharing. They submitted that
their article was the first to systematically review individual knowledge
sharing and that previous reviews have focused on technological issues of
knowledge sharing or knowledge transfer across units or organizations, or
within inter-organizational networks.