It’s the concept of framing. Framing is defined as

It’s a normal summer day and you’re walking
in your neighbored, and all of a sudden you see cars parked lined up in a
remarkable manner. The car colors are set in a pattern. One after another, the
parked car color scheme you notice is red, black, red, black, red etc. At this
point, if you were to see a blue color car in the pattern, it could surprise you.

This due to the concept of framing. Framing is defined as a type of technique
that when information is presented and how one identifies it. Based on the
example that was provided, our brain was “framed” and involuntarily observed a
pattern of colors and when it changed, our brain was taken a back. This paper will examine what occurs
when framing is with the Stroop effect.

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            In
1935, J. Ridley Stroop did three experiments that focused on the idea if the
simultaneous presentation of two conflicting stimuli, the written word and the
color of the ink, had an influence on the reaction time (Stroop, 1935). This
paper shadows Stroop’s second experiment which is known as the Stroop Effect,
where individuals were
presented with names of colors which were printed in a different color rather
than the color of the name that was written. Stroop investigated the speed and response
time between congruent and incongruent conditions. Congruent conditions meant
that the color of the word and the word written were the same, and incongruent
meant that the color of the word and the word written were different. It was
found that congruent word conditions took less time than incongruent word
conditions and it was concluded that reading a word written is an automatic
practice and that is why such results ensued. An important part of socialization is once an individual
learns how to read and therefore see a word, they automatically read it and
this is an extensive view in cognition. This is due to automaticity and that is
because of lifetime framing. Therefore, if a word and the color of the word were
the same, congruent, then there was no interference in the task. But if they
were different, incongruent, there would be an interference in reading the word
and disrupts the automaticity.

            Seventy-six
years later in 2011, Liat Goldfarb, Daniela Aisenberg, and Avishai Henik
questioned the Stroop Effect within three experiments. They were curious to see
if Stroop Effect would decrease or be eliminated if partakers were primed with
reading dyslexia. They believed that automaticity in reading would be rejected
if participants were to recite words if they were primed to the social concept
of dyslexia. It was found that within the two experiments the participants had
been primed with dyslexia, the Stroop Effect was entirely eliminated (Goldfarb, Aisenberg, & Henik 2011).

Looking at the results of Goldfarb, Aisenberg and Henik’s study it is to be
argued that there are many issues with the experimental design. If one was to
have dyslexia, it can be argued that the response time would be actually higher
and increase the Stroop effect and not the opposite like it was found in their
study. However, results were found and it supported their hypothesis nonetheless
it could be debated that Stroop effect wasn’t eliminated due to priming but to reading
dyslexia. It is recommended to do further studies and to repeat this experiment
with participants that actually have dyslexia and therefore strengthen their
hypothesis.

Branching off of Goldfarb,
Aisenberg and Henik’s experiment, we generated an experiment linking Stroop
test and framing. Here, we arrange colors of the ink in a string of words in a
pattern and essentially called it color framing. Color framing was projected to
prime the participant to unconsciously and automatically convey which color
would come next, similar to the car example that was previously used. Moreover,
we argue that the automaticity generated by color framing is stronger than the automaticity
of reading a word.

It is hypothesized that framing
will reduce or entirely eliminate the Stroop effect and this could be attained
in two different ways. The first way would be that main effects of color framing
and congruency and an interaction effect will be found. A main effect of color
framing meant that the response time of framing will be faster than non-framing
conditions. A main effect of congruency meant that the response time of
congruent words will be faster than incongruent words. If these effects are
found, then Stroop effect has been reduced or eliminated. The second way to
attain the hypothesis would be to only find a main effect of framing and not a
main effect of congruency and an interaction effect. Both ways achieve the same
end result of reducing or eliminating the Stroop Effect. The alternative
hypothesis is that color framing will not reduce or entirely eliminate the
Stroop effect of congruency. Therefore, not finding a significance between the
response time of framing and non-framing conditions.