IntroductionWithin Psychology there are five major perspectives that have

IntroductionWithin Psychology there are five major perspectives that have been realized over the evolution of Psychology itself. These perspectives include Neuroscience, Psychodynamic, Behavioral, Cognitive, and Humanistic. Each one of these attempts to analyze variations in behaviours and may explain them differently. This assignment will specifically review the five psychological perspectives as they relate to alcoholism. The Neuroscience PerspectiveA psychologist who subscribes to the neuroscience perspective will attempt to address how alcoholism relates to the brain and nervous system. They will study how alcohol can affect such areas such as hormones, nerves, and even potentially how heredity can lead to consumption. Specifically, many Psychologists will look at how exposure of alcohol to the brain will affect behavioural change in the individual. For example, an individual who consumes alcohol regularly may develop a tolerance to it and would need to consume more to achieve the same affect that less consumption provided. This has resulted in a behavioural change; The individual now consumes more alcohol than they previously did. This can also lead to second and third order affects such as spending more financially or eating less. A recent article in Science Daily discusses a cluster of neurons that may relate to alcoholism. The scientists discovered that alcohol affects the dopamine receptors medium spiny neurons, specifically the Dopamine-1 (D-1) receptor. The D-1 receptor becomes excited when alcohol is introduced and encourages more consumption (Sumners, 2015). The Psychodynamic PerspectiveViewing alcoholism from this perspective, Psychologists would seek to determine its causes by studying the factors beyond the individuals control. They would seek to identify if the cause of alcoholism relates to such things as impulses or instincts. That a person is driven to alcohol because unknowingly and have little control over the desire to consume. Psychologists would look to treat the issue potentially through therapy as apposed to medications. The Behavioural PerspectiveAlcoholism would be assessed from this perspective through observational behaviour. Psychologists would want to see measured results while studying alcoholism from this perspective. As a baseline, they may start by studying two individuals; one who suffers from alcoholism and one who does not. They would likely observe these two individuals in various environments to determine what causes one to consume or become addicted over the other. By doing this, the psychologist now has a measurable result. Behavourist’s may apply many different models to this perspective. An example of this is the non-mediational approach. In this approach, Psychologist can describe the relationship between alcoholism and environmental events (George & Marlatt, 1983). The Cognitive PerspectivePsychologists using the cognitive perspective would attempt to understand the decision-making process of someone who suffers from alcoholism. This decision-making process can entail how an individual observes, orients, decides, and acts upon their environment. This is also known as the OODA loop. For example, a psychologist using this perspective may want to understand why someone chooses alcohol, why they continue to drink, and if others who consume alcohol make these same types of decisions. They may also seek to understand if those who suffer from alcoholism understand the consequences to their actions. The Humanistic PerspectiveWhen addressing alcoholism, the humanistic perspective may be one applied in helping individuals who suffer to still strive to live fulfilling and positive lives. Psychologists who subscribe to this perspective may use it as a way to help treat those who suffer from the disorder. For example, a Psychologist may seek to treat an individual by asking them to volunteer or to set small goals for themselves so they can realize success in their lives. The Humanistic perspective argues that people are individuals who, no matter what their upbringing, strive to make themselves always better. Addictions can occur when people fall short of these accomplishments. They can use alcohol as a form of escape from otherwise not being fulfilled by accomplishments (“Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs: Humanistic…”, 2012).