INTRODUCTIONMarriage is to be divided and other duties and

      INTRODUCTIONMarriage is an important social institution . It is a relationship which is socially approved . The relationship is defined and sanctioned  by custom and law .The definition of the relationship includes not only guidelines for behaviour relating to sex but also regarding things like the particular way labour is to be divided and other duties and privileges . Children born of marriage are considered the legitimate offspring of marriage coupled . This legitimacy is important in the matter of inheritance and succession .Thus marriage is not only a mean of sexual gratification but also a set of cultural mechanisms to ensure the continuation of the family . It is more or less a universal social institution in India.The religious texts of many communities in India have outlined the purpose                                 DEFINATIONMarriage is a sacramental bond between two permissible mates i.e.”   a male or a female which is sanction by the court or the committed authority .”            MARRIAGE STRUCTURAL – FUNCTIONAL CHANGES The Marriage system had undergone radical changes especially radical changes especially after independence. Even though the basic beliefs associated with marriage have not crumbled down , many of the practices , customs and forms have changed . The recent changes are briefly discussed here:-(A) Changes in the form of the marriage = The traditional form of marriage like  polygyny . Polygyny are not found anywhere and they are legally prohibited in India . Only monogamous marriages are universally practiced .  Changes in the aim and purpose of marriage =  In traditional societies the primary  objective of marriage ‘ dharma ‘or duty , especially among Hindus. But today the modern objective of marriage is more related to ‘ life long companionship ‘between husband and wife .Changes in the process of mate selection = The following area of mate selection we can see significant changes today Field of selection has become very wide . It is wide enough to include inter religious and inter caste marriage marriages .(B) party to selection . Parents do not take an active role in selection of life partners of their children .  The practice of young men and women selecting their life  partners  by themselves is becoming popular today . (C) Criteria of selection . Much importance is given to individual interests , preferring and considering rather then to family consideration . This trend is reflected in the increase in the instance of love marriages  4) Change in the age at marriage :- Child marriage are reduced . As per the present marriage act a boy below 21 year and a girl below 18 years cannot marry . pre-puberty marriages have thus placed to post –puberty marriage . 5) Changes in the stability of marriage:- legislative provision for divorce has virtually affected the stability of the marriage . The legislative provision for divorce and widow remarriage have undermined the importance of the age old values related to marriage . The concept of equality of sex has also affected the stability of marriage ties . 6) Changes in the Economic aspect if marriage :-   The practice of paying dowry is associated with marriage . This practice has grown into a big evil . Brides parents are compelled today to pay a huge amount of money as dowry. This practice made marriage as a costly affair. Marriages are often settled only on consideration of dowry .          Marriage ceremony is also becoming costly affair since huge amount of money is spend lavishly on decoration, procession , video, music and so on … 7) An Increase in the instances of Divorce and desertion :-    The instances of divorce are on increase          Though these new trends are observed today the importance of marriage has not diminished it is still universally practice . Though its sanctity is affected a little . It is not reduced to the level of a mere civil contract in Indian sociPSYCHOLOGY TODAYStarter marriage :- Couples want to try out marriage for a pre-determined amount of time, without having kids . They sign legal contracts before the time is up ,they decide whether to split or to  renew their marriage or move on to a different kind of marriage  Companionship marriage :-  This is another marriage that is not about children .Couples marry for friendship to have someone to socialize with and do other things together . Parenting marriage :-  This model of marriage Is all about  children . A romantic connection need not be a part of the package . Two people commit to rising kids together and proving a great home for them . They promise to stay together only until all of their children become independent . Of course they can always decide to stay together even after that  but the forever assumption is not part of their mental contract from the start .Safety Marriage :-  Some people marry for money . Others marry for health insurance or financial security while they pursue their passions or education or they marry for some instrumental reason . Don’t get all judges! It is not gold – digging or exploitation if  each spouse gets something out of the arrangement and each explicitly aggress  to it from the outside Living alone together marriage :-  This marriage is for people who say they need their space and mean it .Literally each spouse has a place of his or her own . They are committed to the relationship but want a measure of autonomy .Open Marriage :- Spouses have other partners but they are not sneaking around . They are practicing ‘  consensual non- monogamy ‘ . They want a stable marriage but not a monogamous one . The ‘ consensual’ part mean they have agreed to it .  Covenant Marriage :-  Whereas all of the other versions of the new ‘ I Do ‘ relax the constraints or assumptions of the prevailing model of marriage .  It is only for unions of one man and women . The marriages are harder to get out of legitimate grounds .    CAUSES  AND EFFECTS OF SUCH CHANGESThere have been major changes in the endogamous relations of marriage , particularly in caste , class and race endogamy . Endogamous marriages restrict and limit the choice of the people to choose their life partner. Generally , such restriction leads to the decline of welfare of the concerned spouses and often leads to conflicts and fights due to lack of mutual compatibility between them .They were large number of cases reported of domestic violence and divorce due to such endogamous marriage .  Thus endogamy restricts the freedom of the person to choose beyond one caste ,class and sub – caste .      Endogamous marriages destroy the family ordination of the hierarchy wherein  each individual should occupy a specific and a particular position in the society . if a person is an uncle as well as some other relative of the person , its become complicated and difficult to give a definite position to a person in such society and lead to confusion . Moreover his role widens with more status in a family and thus has to perform multiple function to meet those status . This lead to lot of burden and stress and eventually leads to family disorganization .  Such problem associated with endogamy paved the way for exogamous . The inter- caste marriages have received encouragement due to occupational mobility, migration ,education, and common place of work for both men and women in offices and factories . Many people thus get a chance to interact with different people and develop intimacy with them which eventually results in their marriage .                                               LEGAL PERSPECTIVE THE right to marry is a component of Right to life under article 21 of the constitution of India which says , ” no person shall be deprived of his life or personal liberty except according to the procedure established by law. The right has been recognised under the universal declaration of Human Rights 1948 ( article 16) of the same states Men and Women of full age without ant limitation due to Race , nationality , or religion , have the right as marry and to form a family .  They are entitled to equal rights  as to marriage , during marriage at its dissolution   Marriage shall be entered into only with the free consent of the intending spousesThe family is the natural and fundamental group unit of society and is entitled  to protection by society and the state      DIVORCE IN INDIATHE Hindu Shasta’s regarded marriage a bond indissoluble in life . The wife was to worship her husband as a god. To Hindu law there was no such thing as divorce . The custom of divorce  existed  among  the lower caste . The term divorce come from the lain word ‘divortium’ which mean to turn aside to separate . Divorce is the legal cessation of matrimonial bond . All the personal laws in India provide divorce under certain grounds and conditions. Though there are different acts governing people belonging to different religions the ground provided for divorce are more less or same with minor variation though.                       CONCLUSION Marriage is considered to be an institution of is a’sanskara’ or purifactoty ceremony obligatory for every Hindu. The Hindu religious books have enjoined marriage as a duty because an unmarried man cannot perform some of the most important religious ceremony. There are various types of marriages that are followed in a country monogamy being followed at large.     As a society has advanced the Hindu marriage has gone through various changes. Even values attached to it have changed tremendously. Individuals are now selecting their mates according to their own requirements many are not getting into matrimonial alliances due to some problems.The marriages in India are governed by Hindu marriage act and special marriage act which regulates the marriage . The provision of divorce has also helped many people to come out of their marriage . Thus , as believed Hindu marriage act is no more indissoluble.                                             BIBLIOGRAPHY REFERENCE FROM THE C.N. SHANKER RAO VIDYABHUSHAN