IntroductionLand is a valuable andfinite natural resource Land use planning refers to approach of judiciousallocation of available land resources for different activities for sustainabledevelopment of country or region. Land is limited so its proper allocation fordifferent activities is very important. It’s role become very important incountry like India where population is very large.
Land use planning hascertain objectivesLanduse planning in India Land use planning falls under the state government. Thereis no single approach for land use planning. Different sectors like mining,urban, rural, etc have their own approaches.
In rural households mainly peopleare dependent on agriculture. So proper land utilization and cropping patternBut yet there is no proper approach for land use planning in rural areas. Thereis lack of integrated planning approach in country. Current land use planningis not adequateThe Constitution (Seventy-fourthAmendment) Act, 1992 provides for District Planning and Metropolitan AreaPlanning that consolidates plans of both panchayats and municipalities havingregard to spatial (land use) planning. Currently prepared district plans, donot cover land, environmental as well as urban concerns. District level landuse plans do not work properly, the regional development gets fastened by urbanisationor industrialization. Cities and towns are emerging as centre for investment bydomestic and international traders. So cities and towns expand in size, properplanning is essential for land utilization.
Contribution of urban sector tonational economy increases. Urban Development Plans Formulationand Implementation (UDPFI) Guidelines (1996) recommended urban developmentplanning system involving four inter-related plans. For urban areas and metropolitanareas Master Plans and Development Plans are prepared, sometime Regional Planssuch as for Delhi. Development Plans are prepared by the urban local bodies orDevelopment Authorities. The National Manufacturing Policy(Nov 2011), promotes integrated industrial townships, known as the NationalInvestment and Manufacturing Zones (NIMZs) with at least 5,000 Ha area and prepareenvironment friendly Development Plans. The state or local authorities such asindustrial development corporations are identifying locations for industrialestates, special economic zones, investment zones/regions and industrialcorridors and prepare development plans for such areas. For example, theGujarat Infrastructure Development Board is preparing an elaborate DevelopmentPlan for Dholera Special Investment Region, which is a part of the Delhi-MumbaiIndustrial Corridor. Under the Environment (Protection)Act, 1986, the Ministry of Environment & Forests, GoI notifies “EcoSensitive Zones”, which require preparation of Zonal Master Plans or ZonalDevelopment Plans that guide further development in the area.
Eco SensitiveAreas include protected areas like National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries,Conservation Reserves and Community Reserves (total number: 659), which coverabout 4.79% of the total geographic area of the country. The areas other thanprotected areas such as landscape areas, areas with historical value also arecovered under Eco Sensitive Zones. Integrated Watershed ManagementProgramme (2009) covers marginal lands and area under rainfed agriculture. Irrigatedarea has reached its productivity limits and the increase in productivity ofrainfed area is to be addressed for food security issues. With the support ofthe World Bank, Government of India has started, Integrated Coastal ZoneManagement (ICZM) Project for the integrated coastal zone management approachin states of Gujarat, Orissa and West Bengal. During late 1980’s, the Government ofIndia launched centrally sponsored programme Computerisation of Land Records(CLR) and Strengthening of Revenue Administration & Updating of LandRecords (SRA&ULR) to improve revenue administration and the sordid state ofland records in the country. Government of India then merge the earlier twoprogrammes into a single programme called ‘National Land Records ModernizationProgramme (NLRMP)’ which aims to have a system of updated land records,automated land transactions, integration between textual and spatial landrecords, inter-connectivity between revenue and registration systems, and replacethe present deeds registration and presumptive title system with conclusivetitling with title guarantee.
There are several existing policiesrelating to land use. These include the National Water Policy 2013, the NationalLand Use Policy Outlines 1988, the National Forest Policy 1988, the PolicyStatement of Abatement of Issues to be addressed while land useplanning- Level of urbanization in India has increased from 17% (1951) to 31%(2011).