Introduction With the development of modern life, obesity is becoming a worldwide epidemic. Obesity, in other words, overweight, describes people having too much body fat. Wikipedia illustrated that in 1972, the Journal of Chronic Diseases by Ancel Keys found that the best way to measure body fat is body mass index, or BMI (BMI = kg/m2 ) (Wikipedia–cited Keys 1972). According to the World Health Organization (WHO), in 2014, about 1.9 billion people in the age 18 and over are overweight, included 38% of men and roughly 40% of women. Overall, the proportion of obese adult in all over the world was about 13% in 2014 (WHO 2016).
It is concerned that obesity is rising quickly: Danielle Dellorto, an author of CNN, highlighted that the rate of corpulence has soared by 82% in the last two decades (Dellorto 2012). There are many pernicious influences of obesity on both health and society. Obesity is associated with myriad diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, high blood pressure, cholesterol and other diseases. James Chapman’s survey demonstrated that currently, more than 400000 people die each year in Europe related to obesity (Chapman 2014). Moreover, overweight people have difficulties in studying and participating in social activities. There is a question that whether or not there will be less active in the future if the rate of obesity keep growing.
These figures are worrying fraction for not only governments but also individuals. We must acknowledge obesity as a serious disease that we need to understand more about. Therefore, this paper, with the purpose of helping reduce obesity proportion, discusses the causes and looks at some solutions to resolve this problem.Discussion 2.1. Causes of obesity 2.
1.1. Having unbalanced dietsOne of the main reasons leading to excessive weight is unbalanced diets, that meaning the meals have low nutritional value. In recent years, life is faster and people tend to be busier; hence, they eat far more fast food than in the past, which means that they may increase their total calories consumed.
Nowadays, children do not like eating vegetables and fruits or drinking fresh juices, neither do adults. They eat fast food and drink more soft drinks because of its convenience – typically needing little or no preparation, which they can buy easily everywhere with a cheap price and totally enjoy meal at the same time during working or studying. The unbalanced meals always provide people more calories than usual. In fact, the average physically active man needs only about 2,500 calories a whole day to maintain a healthy weight, and the average physically active woman needs about 2,000 calories for one day. For example, according to a journalist of CNN named Caleb Hellerman, about 25% of American get 200 or more calories from sweetened drinks such as coke, soda and juice. Surprisingly, a 567-gram soda includes 227 calories, more than 10% of total calories a woman needs one day (Hellerman 2013). 2.
1.2. Doing less physical activitiesOne study of BBC News by Adam Brimelow pointed out that although there are no signs of activeness impacts on weight, children with excessive weight did less exercise than peers (Brimelow 2010). In 2010, WHO reported that approximately 23% of people aged 18 and over were inadequate exercise (WHO 2010).Many people are not very physically active.
The reason makes people to be inactive is the advancement of technology and the lack of parks, insufficient sport facilities or air pollution for people to relax and do more outdoor activities after working and studying. Beside that, the development of television sets, not only children but also mature people like watching television to relax and broaden mind; consequently, they spend less time playing sports and going outside. In the same way, computers are becoming helpful devices that personnel can complete their works with the only requirement is sitting in front of the screens. People who are inactive are more likely to gain weight because they do not burn the calories that they take in from food and drinks. Thus, the rate of inactive people may increases and brings about the growth of obesity.
2.1.3. Other reasonsThere are several reasons causing obesity such as lack of sleep and genetics.
Firstly, people nowadays are engaged in their work and disrespect their sleeps. Normally, they think that shortage of sleep has no influence on their weight. But Jason Koebler – an author of USNews emphasized that sleep loss leads people to expend more energy because they need more to keep their bodies awake.
(Koebler 2013 – cited Kenneth Wright). For example, one study of teenagers showed that with each hour of sleep lost, the odds of becoming obese went up. So lack of sleep increases the risk of obesity in other age groups as well.People who sleep fewer hours also seem to prefer eating foods that are higher in calories and carbohydrates, which can lead to overeating, weight gain, and obesity. Secondly, genetics also play a part in leading people to be obese. DrAnanyaMandal of News medical endorsed that the “thrifty gene” may causes obesity. This gene favors fat accumulation in a given environment (Mandal 2013). Hence, with the operation of this gene, people may expend weight.
2.2. Solutions of obesity 2.2.1. Having balanced dietsThere are myriad solutions to solve obesity but one of the main causes of obesity overeating.
Hence, the first solution given here is having a healthy diet. As the figures mentioned in 2.1.
1, the amount of calories absorbed human need in a day is different; in particularly, the amount of calories that men consume each day is approximately 1800 calories, whereas women need atleast 1200 calories (Morris 2015). Having a healthy diet not only helps control weight but also helps people fight this disease. A substantial meal consists of lean protein, fruits, vegetables, whole grains helps keep your immune system and digestive system running (Truex 2015). Leslie Truex said eating a balanced diet nutrition helps the body function at optimum levels. Snacks provide a lot of energy but often have a lot of fat. Sugar and refined carbohydrates can lead to tired stagnation (Leslie Truex 2015). However, a reasonable diet should come with durability.
If people do not desert their habit to set new eating habits they will return to their old and the weight will come back. In the same way, to improve overweight, having a reasonable diet and limited snacks along with perseverance is essential.Doing more physical activitiesHaving a good diet is inadequate to decline overweight. To achieve high implementation a diet rationality combined with useful activities. Betty Holt has written an article in implementing physical activity is often used as walking, jogging, cycling and swimming (100 calories burned equivalent to about 10gram of fat to walk 20 minutes, 12 minutes of swimming or tennis, 8 minutes cycling or jogging) (Betty Holt 2014). Be seen from there, but only with simple operation but consumes a large amount energy of the body. In addition, exercise releases several chemicals into the brain that help reduce stress, anxiety and depression.
Further exercise increases your feelings of confidence, and improves mood and thought processes (Otto 2011). In a study in the well-being index, bill hendrick said no exercise in a week was associated with 35% rate of obesity. Exercise 30 minutes, 1-2 days a week, was associated with a 28% rate of obesity (Hendrick 2009) from the data given above can be seen as an exercise solution important limitations as well as the treatment of obesity.On the other hands, in recent year, for burning calories people can do some simple exercises at home based on video guide online in 5-30 minutes depend on each unit. This trend is more and more popular because its provides the same effective as training in the gym for an hour.Other solutionsSleep helps maintain a healthy balance of the hormones that make you feel hungry (ghrelin) or full (leptin). When people do not get enough sleep, the level of ghrelin goes up and the level of leptin goes down.
This makes people feel hungrier than when they well-rested. So that, a healthy timetable is important, not only balance diet but also time for sleep. In fact, people need to sleep at least 7 hours per day to have a full energy for working or studying whole day.Sleeping is a vital part of the foundation for good health, well-being throughout your lifetime, and also helps to prevent many diseases, including diseases related to obesity.Besides three solutions mentioned above, there are several other solutions such as medication and surgery. Gastric bypass surgery helps limit the amount of food that can be consumed before feeling full (Heisler 2014).
Using of drugs and surgery can lose weight quickly but it also has many limitations. Jennifer Heisler said patients undergoing this procedure must make fundamental changes in food intake and lifestyle in order to have a successful long-term results (Heisler 2014).ConclusionFrom all the findings above, it is clear that being obese is an issue that we should care more. It has developed significantly in recent years and affected people, who live negatively. Some obese people blamed their weight problems for genetics, but that is not always the case. There are several subjective reasons bring about excessive weight such as diets, physical activities and sleeping times. Hence, obesity is a preventable disease. WHO has been adopted the Global strategy on Diet, Physical activity and Health by World Health Assembly in 2004.
However, to reduce obesity, each individual’s responsibility is the most important.