Introduction: inject the DNA into the empty egg cell.

Introduction: Cloning began in the late 1800’s. Specifically in 1885 where Hans Dreisch cloned a sea urchin. After that, he then conducted the very first nuclear transfer in 1902 with a salamander embryo. He successfully split the embryo of a two-celled salamander into 2 separate cells, by using a single strand of hair. In 1952, two scientists by the name of Robert Briggs and Thomas King, conducted another nuclear transfer experiment, using adult donor cells to clone frogs. In the year of 1973, scientist Tong Dizhou created the very first clone of interspecies. This was done by inserting the DNA of Asian carp, into European carp. As research of cloning has dramatically increased, scientist Ian Wilmut cloned the very first animal from an adult cell in 1997. This mammal was famously known as, “Dolly the sheep.”Cloning is used to describe a variety of processes that can be used to produce identical copies of the same entity. Each copied entity is genetically the same and and is referred to as a clone. Over the years, researchers have cloned various biological materials, such as tissues, genes, cells and entire organisms. In animal cloning, researchers remove a mature somatic cell, such as a skin cell, from the animal. Researchers then take an egg cell, an oocyte, and remove its nucleus. They then use that specific somatic cell, to transfer DNA into an empty egg cell. This transfer is done one of two ways; either through electrical current, or using a needle to inject the DNA into the empty egg cell. In the option of electrical current, the current is used to fuse the somatic cell and the empty egg cell together. In the other option, a needle is used to remove the DNA nucleus from the somatic cell, and inject it into the empty egg cell. Within both methods of transferring the DNA into the egg cell, the egg is then left to develop in a test tube, in which after the early stages of embryo development have passed, is injected into the womb of a female animal. In the end, the female animal gives birth to a genetically identical animal, similar to the animal in which donated the somatic cell.Cloning can be important for many reasons. This can include the research and advances in medicine and the medical field, livestock, improving crops, and can even be used by police. Cloning can allow for scientists to reduce their need for the use of transgenic models. When scientists test medicines, they typically use animal models, such as mice. Most of the mice that are used for studies, have been genetically engineered to carry a mutation within their genes. The use of these models requires a lot of time and trial and error experiments, including the need to breed various generations, in order for the specific disease-causing mutation to become present within the model. The use of cloning would allow for genetically identical animals to be present and ready for the time of the experiment, when needed. Cloning is also important for the use in making stem cells. Cloning stem cells would allow scientists to make identical copies of individual cells,which would be beneficial for growing complete new organs, without the worry of the body rejecting foreign stem cells. Cloning can also be used in gene therapy. It can be used to determine many genes in which are disease causing. The use of cloning genes, allows for specific disease-causing genes and cures to be found.Cloning can also be beneficial towards producing livestock faster. Instead of cloning the livestock itself, the livestock could be used for making breeding stock. Only the cells from high-quality stock could be cloned and used to give to the animals in order for the animals to pass on the superior genes within generations. Cloning is also important for improving crops, specifically making crops herbicide-resistant.Finally, cloning can be used by police, in genetic fingerprinting. This is done by the extraction of DNA from bodily fluid and using restriction enzymes to cut the DNA.Overall, cloning is used to describe a variety of processes that can be used to produce identical copies of the same entity. Each copied entity is genetically the same and and is referred to as a clone. Cloning is becoming a very controversial, yet heavily researched topic. The use of cloning can be beneficial in many ways, such as in the research and advances in medicine and the medical field, livestock, improving crops, and can even be used by police.Research: Genetically modified mice are a very important part in researching human disease. Often a researcher will spend years developing a mouse that has precisely the right genetic mutations to model a particular human disease. Sometimes due to those very mutations a mouse is rendered infertile. However, after all the time put in to making that mouse it is unacceptable to have to start over from scratch. Currently there are two methods that can be used for continuing a valuable strain of mouse. The first of these methods is Intracytoplasmic Sperm Injection (ICSI). ICSI can be used if at least one of the remaining mice is male and possessing a healthy germ cells. It is an in vitro fertilization procedure where a single sperm cell is taken from that male mouse and inserted directly into an egg. The second method is used when the remaining mice are all female or if they are unable to produce healthy germ cells. This method is called Somatic-Cell Nuclear Transfer (SCNT) and it entails replacing an oocyte’s nucleus with the nucleus of an adult somatic cell. The type of somatic cell used is very important because different cells have different efficiencies in producing live clones. Ease of access and readiness for experimental use also needs to be considered. Currently, the preferred cells are cumulus cells. These calls are found surrounding the oocytes in the ovarian follicle and after ovulation. Several doctors in Japan raised the question whether white blood cells, also known as leukocytes, would work as effective donor cells. Leukocytes could potentially be collected from an easily accessed site such as the tail. Using these cells would allow for repeated sampling with greatly reduced risk to the donor mouse. When tested, of the five different types of red blood cells, lymphocytes were the type that performed the most poorly with only 1.7 percent of the embryos developing into viable offspring. Granulocytes and monocytes performed better with 2.1 percent of the embryos developing to term, this is comparable to the 2.7 percent that develop to term with cumulus cells. Now although the blood cells didn’t surpass the success rate of the cumulus cell, this study has demonstrated something amazing. For the first time, mice can be cloned using the nuclei of peripheral blood cells. This is great because these cells can be used for cloning immediately after collection. They also pose a minimal risk to the donor mouse. This helps to generate copies of the strains of mice that are unable to be preserved by other techniques. There are also breakthroughs that allow production of healthy mouse clones that live a normal lifespan of 2 years, (similar to that of a naturally conceived mouse) and can be sequentially cloned indefinitely. Researchers from the RIKEN Center for Developmental Biology in Kobe, Japan started an experiment in 2005 that successfully produced 581 clones from one original mouse through 25 consecutive rounds of cloning. This is the first time this has been possible because scientists had not been able to overcome SCNT’s limitations. These limitations included low success rates, and a limited number of times an animal could be recloned. Previously, attempts to reclone mice, cats, and pigs more than two to six times had failed. It was suggested by Doctor Wakayama that the accumulation of genetic or epigenetic abnormalities over successive generations could be the cause of this limit on the number of cloning attempts. Doctor Wakayama and his team were able to prevent possible epigenetic changes or modifications to the DNA function that did not involve a change in the DNA itself. They were able to increase cloning efficiency by up to six-fold by adding trichostatin (a histone deacetylase inhibitor) to the cell culture medium. By improving the steps of SCNT the team was able to clone the mice repeatedly without seeing a decline in the success rate. The 581 mice obtained through this cloning were all fertile and gave birth to healthy babies that lived a normal life span. The test results showed that there were no accumulations of genetic or epigenetic abnormalities in the mice. Even after cloning them repeatedly. This new technique could actually be quite useful for large-scale production of animals of a superior quality that could be used for farming or for conservation purposes. As everyone can see, whether we like it or not, cloning is the way of the future. But as of right now, scientists have been able to clone dogs. This is a good step in the right direction of cloning because if you liked your most recent dog, I say why not? Go and clone him/her and bring back your best friend. Researchers don’t really get into the specifics of what kind of vitals they will study in the dogs, but Ko suggested they might compare the immune systems, genetics, and behaviors between the cloned animals and non-cloned (Mandelbaum, 2017, para 5). The team began by taking 120 donor dog egg cells, then replacing the genetic material with a dog named Snuppy. They implanted 13, 13, and 14 cells into three mothers, which bred four clones but one died from severe diarrhea a few days after birth. Three different families have adopted or will adopt the other three, said Ko, one of the study’s authors. Sending the dogs to three different homes will allow the team to see how other environmental factors might influence how the clones deal with their aging process (Mandelbaum, 2017, para 7). I asked Ko about the response to the study, he said he’s received positive and negative comments. “People think that the cloning will eventually be used for supplying organs or tissue grafting,” he said. “They think it’s a bad thing to provide clones for those things because they might kill the clones.” This is science fiction, of course, and scientists are continuing to work on other still sci-fi-sounding alternatives like trying to grow organs from stem cells (Mandelbaum, 2017, para 8). The Seoul National University dismissed the researcher behind Snuppy named Woo Suk Hwang because investigations found he had potentially falsified results in other experiments. This had cast doubt on Snuppy’s authenticity but further investigations found that Snuppy, at least, really was a clone. Now further research on Snuppy’s reclones could shed some light on what being a clone truly really means. (Mandelbaum, 2017, para 9).Future implications: Cloning today is used primarily in the agricultural field and you see it used a little in the medical field. But what if we could use cloning to benefit the medical field even more? In the future scientists say that we can use cloning to essentially create a working replica of human organs. By using cloning to do this, that does not mean cloning an entire human, it means taking individual genomes from certain working organs, growing them in a lab, and putting it in the place of the non-functioning organ. If this becomes a scientific outbreak the medical industry will benefit a great deal as the organ transplant wait list is horribly long.