IntroductionAdolescence is the development from childhood toadulthood. It describes the years between ages 13 to 19. Adolescent can becategorised into three stages which are early adolescence, middle adolescenceand late adolescence. According to Western psychologists,”adolescence primarily as preparation for maturity and this period as atime of potential crisis brought on by the uncertainties of the social andphysical transitions between life (Bucholtz, 2002). Puberty is thephysical maturing that makes an individual capable of sexual reproduction, itis a significant period for adolescence. This essay will talk about thephysical, cognitive, psychosocial and moral developmental stages growth of a 17 years old adolescent, B.H.
The client is currently studying ophthalmology in ITE College East. Key InformationThe client is from a single-parent family. B.H.’s parentdivorced about 3 to 4 years ago and the children stay together with theirmother in a 5 room flat HDB. Client’s father had remarried and has a 8 monthold daughter with his current wife.
B.H.’s mother still has a good relationshipwith client’s paternal grandmother. Client will have dinner at their paternalgrandmother’s house together with motherand sister. Since B.H. is a buddhist, she always accompanies her mother totemple. Client’s father still pay for all the household bills and my clientalso works part time for her own expenses.
Physical Developmental StageAdolescence experiences an enormous amount of physical growth and developmentwith rapid increases in height and weight. Adolescence is also the time forgrowth spurts and puberty starts. The development of sex characteristicsincluding the growth of pubic hair, changes of voices, growth of facial andunderarm hair, increased oil secretion, large amount of sweating , and acnebegins (Ruffin, 2014). For B.H., there is the development of breasts changes inthe uterine and the pelvic areas and menarche. Cognitive Development StageCognitive development begins from the moment of birthand continues throughout life. Cognitively adolescence begins developingthe ability to think about multiple possibilities and abstract thinking.
Theclient had trouble thinking in an abstract way before she become anadolescence. But recently, B.H.
has started getting better and better atabstract thinking, which means that she can solve riddles that she couldn’tsolve before. Psychologist Jean Piaget called this time in adolescentdevelopment the formal operations period of life. Adolescence begins to form theability of performing mental operations with abstract, intangible concepts suchas justice, with the ability to describe the effects of the concepts (Angela Oswalt, 2010).The development of an adolescence’s cognition can be influenced by some factorssuch as family culture, quantity and quality of formal schooling, variousmedical conditions, and physical or emotional trauma (Angela Oswalt, 2010).An example of Piaget’s cognitive development theory in adolescence can be seenin individual adolescence response to a natural disaster.
They develop the abilityto imagine and describe what it would be like to be living in a small townshipthat had been destroyed by a cyclone or flood (Angela Oswalt, 2010). Psychosocial Developmental StagePsychosocial development combines changes in emotionsor feelings as well as alterations in relations with others. This includes relationswith peers and family, and relates the person’s personal identity or sense ofself (Hoffnung, 2010). Adolescence is the period theindividual may become curious in sexuality.
The average of 13 year old may havethe emotions of , unhappiness, uncertainty and sensitivity. They may spend sometime alone, and concerned about their appearance developing self-esteem issues.Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development has eight stages which have twopossible consequences for each stages. Adolescence needs to develop a sense ofself and personal identity. Success leads to an ability to stay true toyourself, while failure leads to role confusion and a weak sense of self (Sokol, 2009).
Moral Developmental StageMoral development during the adolescence years can bedefined as the way young people learn to decide what is right and wrong. Accordingto Kohlberg, this level of moral reasoning is as far as most people get. Theindividual becomes alert that while rules might exist for the good of thegreatest number, there are times when they will work against the interest ofparticular individuals. Influencing FactorsMost of the adolescence have been effected byunpleasant circumstances, for example low self-esteem, drug or alcohol abuse,poor nutrition, academic performance and insufficient opportunities for successin school. Adolescence is an important stage for the development of theself-esteem. The changes in physical, cognitive, psychosocial andmoral development could decrease self-esteem. During the stage of adolescence, nutritionaldeficiencies and poor eating habits is highly susceptible.
This may cause some problemsin life later on such as obesity, osteoporosis, hyperlipidemia, delays of sexual maturation, and also final adultheight. The development of eating disorders is also prominent in this stage. Adolescencerequires extra nutrients due to growth spurt. Therefore the client has to takea balanced meal and avoid drinks containing high sugar.
A good oral hygiene isalso important for adolescence. Therefore my client has to practise a good oralhygiene since she has braces. The adolescence with braces is encouraged the useof end-rounded bristle toothbrush for brushing braces and also have to visitdentist regularly for every six months. Family is also important in developingadolescence’s characters and personal traits. Family members have to supportand guide adolescence in making their decisions. Client’s family membersunderstand her and give her some personal spaces.
Community ResourcesAdolescence is commonly having an eating disorders whosefood choices are influenced by society’s pressures to have the ideal look. Someeating disorders are categorised as anorexia, bulimia, binge eating orovereating. Adolescence who suffering from overeating disorder are at a risk ofhigh blood pressure, cholesterol and also suffer from heart attack. Healthyeating habits during adolescence stage is important because their nutritionaland dietary needs are in a time of change.
Adolescence becomes independent andmaking many food decisions on their own such as fast food which bringsconvenience to them. A lot adolescence experiences an increase in appetite andneed healthy foods for their growth needs. The recommended immunizationschedule is designed to protect infants and children early in life, when theyare most vulnerable and before they are exposed to potentially life-threateningdiseases. So the client, B.H.
had taken all the immunizations that iscompulsory in Singapore. ReflectionI felt thankful because my client is actually a quietperson but she still willing to share her own stories with us. I alsorealised that actually everyone hastheir own unspeakable troubles. Besides, I also noticed that she knows her ownidentity from assessing her using the Erikson’s Theory. It was a fruitfulexperience for me.
ConclusionIn conclusion, adolescent has to go through severalstages in their life before they know themselves better like what is stated inErikson’s theory. Physical and psychological changes in adolescence from achildhood to adulthood. Besides, family also needs to pay attention to their emotionalchanges by giving them some suggestions and emotional support and also providethem personal spaces.