I am not interested in whether or not the film was good or bad, only that you can find examples Of principles from the course in action. Am familiar with all of the approved films, so lengthy plot summary is not required.
Just briefly set up the scene you are going to use as an example. Below is an example of how you may set up an example. Example: In the film Gung Ho, the cultural differences between Japanese workers and American workers is often highlighted. Among the cultural qualities that are contrasted is the degree of collectivist and individualistic leanings of theJapanese and American characters. In one scene, Willie, one of the American auto workers, wants to take the afternoon off to be with his child who is having his tonsils removed. Implicit Personality Theory- certain characteristics go with others halo- good at one thing think good at others.
. Horns- negative Self-fulfilling Prophecy- are events that happen as a result of being foretold, expected or talked about. Pygmalion Effect- the greater the expectation placed upon people, the better they perform. Uncertainty Reduction Theory-a way to explain how individuals monitor their social environments to know more about themselves and others. Three Initial Stages of Interaction- Entry Phase: Controlled by communications rules and norms. Personal Phase: Less restricted by above norms – share beliefs, values, attitudes.Exit Phase: Communicators decide on future interaction – how to grow relationship.
Three strategies to reduce uncertainty- Passive: Simple observation. Active: Asking others for info (or looking up information). Interactive: Obtaining information directly – asking questions, etc. Principle of similarity and uncertainty- Verbal Communication Decorative- Dictionary meaning Connotative- the feelings or evaluations we personally associate with the word. Concrete- Words that describe something that can be sensed. Abstract Language-the word is not the thing it represents. Pet can mean several things. So sad- refers to internal feelings.
Language Reflecting and Shaping Attitudes language influences thoughts Eskimo culture has 20 different words for snow. Illness- assumption that all about someone or something can be known. Ex- gender- you men never pay attention. Indexing- discrimination among people not against a group Indiscrimination- not discrimination the failure to realize that each individual is unique.
Nonverbal Any of the FUNCTIONS of Nonverbal Communication- Compliment/reinforce Contradict (WI ink) (sarcasm) (tone) Regulate / striation flow Influence people/deceive Replace wordsExpress emotions Define relationships Self presentation/ Specific applications of a Types of NV Com (Kinesics, Proteomics, etc. ) or Eye contact (part of Kinetics Kinetics (body movement) Facial expression Posture gesture Vocalic Pitch Rate Volume Intonation (sound quality-harsh whiney seductive sarcastic) Proteomics- space Territoriality-primary (your home) secondary (usual desk) Personal space- Key indicator of relationship (vary by culture) -gender is a culture! Intimate space- 0-1 inch Personal Space- 18-Ft Social spacecraft- fit Public space fit Hepatics (touch) -? Vary among culturesCommunicates relationship inform Occurs in intimate/personal distance Communicates power- status equalizer Chronics Du ration Activity Punctuality Time orientation Future- 7th gene. Product think about future Past- look back at good old days (conservative) Present- America lives in present Self presentation Appearance- clothing personal grooming Poise- assurance of manner Defines group or place in culture Olfactory- Nonverbal communication using smell Communication Accommodation Theory: CA.T. Asserts that people try to adjust their style of communication when interacting with another individual. *Switching’s Convergence- The act of adopting the communication style of the individual(s) with whom you are communicating. To communicate in a more similar style.
Why? Increase perceived similarity. Gain Approval. Increases effectiveness of communication.
Divergence- The act of contrasting with an individual in terms of communication style.Differentiating yourself from another through communication style. Why? To Accentuate differences (I. E. Status) To reinforce individual or group identity. To Discourage a relationship or prolonged communication. Over-accommodation- When there is a perception of someone going too far n his or her accommodation, or doing so where it is inappropriate.
Overdoing accommodation: Being patronizing (I. E. Immunization with elderly) Culture (Gender) Individualism-collectivism- extent to which people in a culture are integrated into groups.
Individualism- Personal rights and responsibilities Competition and personal achievement Self-expression Privacy Collectivism- Community, strong connection to groups Harmony and cooperation Avoiding embarrassment Group interests over self-interests Uncertainty Avoidance- extent to which people in a culture avoid unpredictability regarding people, relationships, and events Low UncertaintyAvoidance Comfortable with unpredictability Takes risks Few rules Accept mum Tipple perspectives of “truth” High Uncertainty Avoidance Create systems of formal rules Believe in absolute truth Less tolerant of deviant ideas or behaviors Power Distance- amount of difference in power between people, institutions, and organizations in a culture Masculine & Feminine-extent to which notions of “maleness” and “femaleness” are valued in a culture Masculine Cultures Traditional sex-based roles followed Men are assertive and dominant Women are nurturing service-oriented Male traits valued over female traitsFeminine Cultures Roles not based on one’s sex People free to act in nontraditional ways Feminine traits valued Both men and women demonstrate both masculine and feminine behaviors Culture / High vs.. Low Context Communication- Degree to which messages are conceptualized.
Often varies by culture. Dominant- Culture within a society whose attitudes, values, beliefs, and customs hold the majority opinion Co-cultures- Groups of people living within a dominant culture who are clearly different from the dominant culture Gender 1. Race 2. Ethnicity 3.
Sexual orientation and gender identity 4. Religion 5. Social class .Generation Any gender material covered (Deborah Tanned Notes) Listening Listening Strategies Expressive-Use Restatement (paraphrase content and intent, also quoting) Use Probing Questions Demonstrate Involvement (attentiveness – eye contact) Cognitive-for information, open mind, prepare to listen, remove distractions Critical-separate fact from interferences (conclusion drawn from fact) probe for information Empathic- Both Responsive and Cognitive listening skills are important here. Maintain Supportive Climate, Be Descriptive, not Judgmental, Give feedback that you are listening Types of Faulty ListeningSidesplitting – pretending to listen Stage Hogging -? focusing attention on yourself rather than the person speaking Selective listening – screening out parts of messages that you are not interested in (or those one wants to ignore – Insular Defensive listening -perceiving personal attacks, criticisms, or hostile undertones where none are intended Ambushing – listening carefully for the purpose of attacking a speaker Literal listening – listening only for the content level and ignoring the relational level (or ignoring context in general) Persuasion Aristotle Three Appeals Logos-Appeals to reason and logic.Rational discourse. Argue meets (claims and evidence to support claims – syllogism).
Aristotle preferred Logos, but realized other appeals were important to acknowledge, too Pathos-Using feelings as agent of change: Fear, Pride, Love, Guilt, Shame, Humor, etc. Positive Affect and Association Emotional appeals work well with logical appeals. Ethos-Source Characteristics Credibility & Character Trust, Charisma, Poise, Expertise, Attractiveness, Personality, Likeability, Identification, etc. Also very useful to use with Logos. Cognitive Dissonance-ELM (Systematic-Heuristics)-Socio Judgment Theory Relationships / DisclosureNape’s Relationship Stages 1 . Initiating: We try to ascertain whether an individual is appealing enough to initiate interaction with. We engage in Pathetic Communication (superficial, casual).
2. Experimenting: We try to ascertain whether a relationship with a particular individual is worth it. Cost/Benefit analysis.
We reduce uncertainty. RUT Entry Phase. 3. Intensifying: Amount of information we are willing to disclose increases. RUT Personal Phase. 4. Integrating: The becoming of a couple (a pair, or social unit). Interpersonal Synchrony (increased similarity) increases.
Increased interaction in a wide array of settings. RUT Exit Phase. 5. Bonding: We announce our commitment to each other in a public ritual that lets the world know of the exclusive nature of the relationship. Relationship now guided by specific rules and regulations.
6. Differentiating: Involves the attempt to regain our unique identities. WE becomes I again. Relational fights or conflicts are apt to increase. Is often typical, but can be sign that relationship stress needs to be addressed.
7. Circumscribing: Relationship has begun to deteriorate. Process of De-penetration starts.
Both amount and quality of communication is constricted. Some “unsafe” topics avoided. 8. Stagnating: Relationship no longer growing. Instead, relationship becomes motionless (UN-dynamic), or stagnate. Two partners may share space, but not each Other in a relationship Sense. 9.
Avoiding: We close relationship channels in what is now a deteriorating relationship. We do what we can to avoid coming together or making contact. Contact in this stage is often unfriendly or antagonistic. 10. Terminating: The relationship is now over. Time in this stage can be short-lived or prolonged, cordial or bitter.
Relational Dialectics-This theory argues that people in a relationship experience ongoing tensions between conflicting pairs of opposite motives and desires: Closed news & Openness Autonomous & Connected Novelty & Predictability *TOO much Of one can lead one to seek the other Interpersonal Needs Theory – Relationship depends on how well each person meets the interpersonal needs of the other Three basic interpersonal needs: Affection Inclusion Control Abdicate Autocrats Democrats Social Exchange Theory-Sees relationships as a Cost-Reward Analysis.Cost (Inhibits behavior) Comparison Level “CLC” (Average of past experiences) Reward (Fulfills needs ) Alternatives Comparison Level “CLC-ALT” (Alternatives outside relationship) Social Penetration Theory-This theory suggests that communication moves from shallow, non-intimate levels, to deeper, more intensely personal ones as relationships develop. Communication develops through levels, as individuals self-disclose a wide variety of topics (Breadth) and increasingly share more intimate knowledge (Depth).Conflict Types of Conflict Pseudo – conflict that is apparent, not real Fact – information one person presents is disputed by the other Value – deep- seated beliefs about what is good or bad, worthwhile or worthless, desirable r undesirable, moral or immoral Policy – disagreement over a plan, course of action, or behavior Ego – ‘Wavering” is the primary goal Meta -? disagreements about how to disagree Conflict Management Strategies Power- Reward: Power based on what you can do for or give someone.Coercive: Based on how you can punish or take something away from someone. Expert / Information: Based on the perception of how knowledgeable or skilled someone is.
Legitimate: Based on title or position (president, manager, king, etc. ) Referent: Based on ones likeability, charisma. Image-based power.