and communication technology” are the “technologies that make easy
communication and the processing and transmittal of information by electronic
means.” ICT promises a basic variation in all aspects of our lives, including
political contribution, media, education, health, spare time and entertainment,
knowledge propagation, social interfaces, economic and business practices.
The rural ICT
applications aim to present the services to citizens at their village access
stepladder. The E-governance uses the ICT in present for better and reasonable
connectivity and processing solutions. The emergence of ICT has provided means
for faster and better communication, efficient storage, retrieval and
processing of data and exchange and utilization of information to its users, be
they individuals, groups, businesses, organizations or governments. With all
these opportunities ICT also have some challenges which is also being discussed
below in this chapter.
The concept of e-government started with the advent of government websites in
the early 1990s. The system of government is fixed, static, hierarchical
regulated, whereas web is dynamic, flat and unregulated. Government’s function
is like enormous, where one hand does not know what the right hand is doing 18.
With the development of Information Technology and increased dependence on the
internet as a transaction medium and the development of adequate infrastructure
and regulations, government websites soon developed into a highly potential
channel for supporting a frontend and back end applications 1.
Data mining is the foundation stride, which discovers
the hidden but useful knowledge from massive databases. Data mining technique gives
a user- oriented loom to original and hidden patterns in the data. “Data mining
is the non trivial mining of hidden formerly unidentified and potentially valuable
information regarding data”. The discovered knowledge can be applied by the
E-governance administrators to enhance the quality of service. Customarily,
decision making in E-governance is foundation on the ground information, tutorials
learnt in the ancient times sources and finances limitations. on the other hand,
data mining techniques and knowledge management technology can be useful to construct
knowledge affluent atmosphere. Knowledge Discovery in databases (KDD) can be
effective at working with large volume of data to determine meaningful pattern
and to develop strategic solutions. From the use of KDD Analyst and policy
makers can learn lessons in other industries E-governance data are enormous.
India has been deal with the advantages supplied by the
Information & Communication Technologies (ICT) to provide integrated
governance, reach to the citizens faster, provide efficient services and
citizen empowerment through access to information. The intention of ict is to provide
SMART GOVERNANCE in the ICT age by redefine governance.
Government in the digital era
Technology has severely changed the system
government define themselves and the mode they think about their service and
the department they provide. The government in the digital world currently works
as a guardian of information, as an information advisor to the users, and also
a continuous beginner. The policy of Internet and WWW has facilitated to revolutionize
the behavior of accessing and locating information and thereby change the meanings
of a government in the current information world. The function of government
and the significance of government policies in this digital age are still currently
based on the basic principles of information and communication technology. A
number of attempts have been made to reinterpret the government and their
policies. The major problem in front of the government today is get ready the employees
and customers to utilize technology efficiently. As technology has flooded all
levels of government operations and services, the specialized persons in
government departments has to predict the changing hopes of users, and be stretchy
in adapting and adopting new abilities and stages of consciousness. In accumulation
to the technical and professional talents, dedication to user oriented services
and abilities for valuable oral and written message; they must have other
skills, as well as production and administration, training, leadership, etc.
a key role in e-governance, and so it becomes essential that ICT reaches rural
masses. This will lead to good governance which in turn will lead to better
administration, better interaction, less corruption and more transparency in
the government 16.
government of India recognizes that some good e-Initiatives like e-Governances
provide an excellent opportunity for improving governance. It is a trigger for
introducing various administrative reforms. This could not only go a long way
in improving the quality of life of various sections of society, but could
actually provide them more equitable access to economic opportunities ever
before. In this context, the Government of India views e-Initiative as a
strategic tool for transforming Governance and improving the quality of
services provided by the government to its people. The experience in
e-Governance/ ICT initiatives has demonstrated significant success in improving
accessibility, cutting down costs, reducing corruption, extending help and
increased access to un-served groups.
is in essence, the application of Information and Communications Technology to
government functioning in order to create Simple, Moral, Accountable,
Responsive and Transparent (SMART) governance. The types of services possible
through e-Governance can be broadly classified into three categories (1)
providing information (2) improving processing efficiency and (3) facilitating
transactions 12.E-governance is stand for electronic
government and by the use of ICT it provide the interaction between government
and citizens (G-C), government and businesses (G-B), and government to
government (G-G). In all these modes government applied different policies and
rules for completing the task related to the field.
to citizen (G to C) facilitates citizen interaction with government, which is
primary goal of e-government. This attempts to make transactions, such as
payment of taxes, renewing licenses and applying for certain benefits, less
time consuming and easy to carry out. Government to citizen initiatives also
strives to enhance access to public information through the use of websites and
kiosks 11. Government to Business (G to B) sector includes both the
procurement of goods and services by the government as well as the sale of
surplus government goods to the public on line. There are two motivating forces
behind G to B. Currently; the business community prefers to carry out its
activities such as sales, procurement, and hiring through electronic means.
There are large numbers of software companies, which are producing number of
products focusing on performing routine business activities online 11.
government to government (G to G) sector represents the backbone of
e-government. It is felt that governments at the union, state and local level
must enhance and update their own internal systems and procedures before
electronic transactions with citizens and business are introduced. Government
to government e-government involves sharing data and conducting electronic
exchanges between various governmental agencies 11.
The emergence of
Information and Communications Technology (ICT) has provided means for faster
and better communication, efficient storage, retrieval and processing of data
and exchange and utilization of information to its users, be they individuals,
groups, businesses, organizations or governments.