“Informationand communication technology” are the “technologies that make easycommunication and the processing and transmittal of information by electronicmeans.” ICT promises a basic variation in all aspects of our lives, includingpolitical contribution, media, education, health, spare time and entertainment,knowledge propagation, social interfaces, economic and business practices.The rural ICTapplications aim to present the services to citizens at their village accessstepladder.
The E-governance uses the ICT in present for better and reasonableconnectivity and processing solutions. The emergence of ICT has provided meansfor faster and better communication, efficient storage, retrieval andprocessing of data and exchange and utilization of information to its users, bethey individuals, groups, businesses, organizations or governments. With allthese opportunities ICT also have some challenges which is also being discussedbelow in this chapter.The concept of e-government started with the advent of government websites inthe early 1990s. The system of government is fixed, static, hierarchicalregulated, whereas web is dynamic, flat and unregulated.
Government’s functionis like enormous, where one hand does not know what the right hand is doing 18.With the development of Information Technology and increased dependence on theinternet as a transaction medium and the development of adequate infrastructureand regulations, government websites soon developed into a highly potentialchannel for supporting a frontend and back end applications 1. Data mining is the foundation stride, which discoversthe hidden but useful knowledge from massive databases. Data mining technique givesa user- oriented loom to original and hidden patterns in the data.
“Data miningis the non trivial mining of hidden formerly unidentified and potentially valuableinformation regarding data”. The discovered knowledge can be applied by theE-governance administrators to enhance the quality of service. Customarily,decision making in E-governance is foundation on the ground information, tutorialslearnt in the ancient times sources and finances limitations. on the other hand,data mining techniques and knowledge management technology can be useful to constructknowledge affluent atmosphere. Knowledge Discovery in databases (KDD) can beeffective at working with large volume of data to determine meaningful patternand to develop strategic solutions. From the use of KDD Analyst and policymakers can learn lessons in other industries E-governance data are enormous.
India has been deal with the advantages supplied by theInformation & Communication Technologies (ICT) to provide integratedgovernance, reach to the citizens faster, provide efficient services andcitizen empowerment through access to information. The intention of ict is to provideSMART GOVERNANCE in the ICT age by redefine governance. 1.01 Government in the digital era Technology has severely changed the systemgovernment define themselves and the mode they think about their service andthe department they provide. The government in the digital world currently worksas a guardian of information, as an information advisor to the users, and alsoa continuous beginner. The policy of Internet and WWW has facilitated to revolutionizethe behavior of accessing and locating information and thereby change the meaningsof a government in the current information world.
The function of governmentand the significance of government policies in this digital age are still currentlybased on the basic principles of information and communication technology. Anumber of attempts have been made to reinterpret the government and theirpolicies. The major problem in front of the government today is get ready the employeesand customers to utilize technology efficiently. As technology has flooded alllevels of government operations and services, the specialized persons ingovernment departments has to predict the changing hopes of users, and be stretchyin adapting and adopting new abilities and stages of consciousness.
In accumulationto the technical and professional talents, dedication to user oriented servicesand abilities for valuable oral and written message; they must have otherskills, as well as production and administration, training, leadership, etc. 1.02 ICTand E-GOVERNANCE: ICT playsa key role in e-governance, and so it becomes essential that ICT reaches ruralmasses. This will lead to good governance which in turn will lead to betteradministration, better interaction, less corruption and more transparency inthe government 16.Thegovernment of India recognizes that some good e-Initiatives like e-Governancesprovide an excellent opportunity for improving governance. It is a trigger forintroducing various administrative reforms.
This could not only go a long wayin improving the quality of life of various sections of society, but couldactually provide them more equitable access to economic opportunities everbefore. In this context, the Government of India views e-Initiative as astrategic tool for transforming Governance and improving the quality ofservices provided by the government to its people. The experience ine-Governance/ ICT initiatives has demonstrated significant success in improvingaccessibility, cutting down costs, reducing corruption, extending help andincreased access to un-served groups.E-Governanceis in essence, the application of Information and Communications Technology togovernment functioning in order to create Simple, Moral, Accountable,Responsive and Transparent (SMART) governance.
The types of services possiblethrough e-Governance can be broadly classified into three categories (1)providing information (2) improving processing efficiency and (3) facilitatingtransactions 12.E-governance is stand for electronicgovernment and by the use of ICT it provide the interaction between governmentand citizens (G-C), government and businesses (G-B), and government togovernment (G-G). In all these modes government applied different policies andrules for completing the task related to the field.
Governmentto citizen (G to C) facilitates citizen interaction with government, which isprimary goal of e-government. This attempts to make transactions, such aspayment of taxes, renewing licenses and applying for certain benefits, lesstime consuming and easy to carry out. Government to citizen initiatives alsostrives to enhance access to public information through the use of websites andkiosks 11. Government to Business (G to B) sector includes both theprocurement of goods and services by the government as well as the sale ofsurplus government goods to the public on line.
There are two motivating forcesbehind G to B. Currently; the business community prefers to carry out itsactivities such as sales, procurement, and hiring through electronic means.There are large numbers of software companies, which are producing number ofproducts focusing on performing routine business activities online 11.Thegovernment to government (G to G) sector represents the backbone ofe-government. It is felt that governments at the union, state and local levelmust enhance and update their own internal systems and procedures beforeelectronic transactions with citizens and business are introduced. Governmentto government e-government involves sharing data and conducting electronicexchanges between various governmental agencies 11. The emergence ofInformation and Communications Technology (ICT) has provided means for fasterand better communication, efficient storage, retrieval and processing of dataand exchange and utilization of information to its users, be they individuals,groups, businesses, organizations or governments.