INCLUSIVE DESIGN:· A style of architecture and design whose object is to make buildings and facilities easy to access and use by allpeople, including the young, the old, and the disabled. Source:Dictionary of the English Language, Published by Houghton Mifflin HarcourtPublishing Company. · The design of places and objects to enable access and use by all persons, to the greatest extent possible, without adaptationor modification.Source: Medical Dictionary, © 2009 Farlex and Partners · A design methodology that enablesand draws on the full range of human diversity.Source:katholmesdesign· A design that considers thefull range of human diversity with respect to ability, language, culture,gender, age and other forms of human difference.Source:Idrc. Ocado · Inclusive design (also calleduniversal design) makes places usable by everyone, regardless of age, abilityand circumstance. It is based on the simple principle that designing for thewidest range of people creates better designs and benefits everyone.
Source:sensorytrust.org.uk Inclusive design aims to remove the barriers from the livesof people that create undue effort and separation. It makes easy for the peopleto participate equally, confidently and independently in everyday activities.It is basically a design that can be accessed and used byall the people, regardless of age, gender and disability. This design is notonly relevant for buildings but also applies to the surrounding open spaces aswell, where people go for their everyday activities. It can include shops,offices, hospitals, institutes, park and streets etc.
The aim of inclusivedesign is to make people realize the importance of inclusion in the society. Also,it also aims to make possible for the disabled people to contribute equally inthe society. All the people benefit from inclusive design, but most importantlyit helps disabled and older people. Inclusive design not only means to make one thing for allpeople but it is about designing a diversity of ways for everyone toparticipate with a sense of belonging. Many people are unable to take part insociety, both physical and digital. Physical and social barriers can be removedby implementing inclusive design.
During the past 25 years, many design approaches have been proposedin the fields of designing for disabled and elderly user. The User Pyramiddesign approach by Benktzon in 1993 has been proposed as a graphic illustrationof how to overcome the objection that inclusive design is an unrealizable goal.She has divided the population into three different parts. At the base ofpyramid are the large numbers of able-bodied people, the middles layercomprises of people with reduced capabilities, and at the top are the smallnumbers of people with severe disabilities, including people in wheelchairs andpeople with very limited strength in their hands and arms. The approach assumesthat if buildings are designed to be used according to a particular layer, theywill automatically be useable by all those in the lower layers.Fig:1 Benktzon’suser pyramidDISABILITY:1.
A physical, mental, cognitive, or developmental conditionthat impairs, interferes with, or limits a person’s ability to engage incertain tasks or actions or participate in typical daily activities andinteractions. Source: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/disability2.
A disabled person as someone who has a physical or mentalimpairment that has a substantial and long-term adverse effect on his or herability to carry out normal day-to-day activities.Source: The Disability Discrimination Act (DDA)3. “Disability”, in relation to a person, means asubstantial restriction in the capacity of the person to carry on a profession,business or occupation in the State or to participate in social or culturallife in the State by reason of an enduring physical, sensory, mental health orintellectual impairment.Source: The Disability Act 20054. Disabilities is an umbrella term, covering impairments,activity limitations, and participation restrictions. An impairment is aproblem in body function or structure; an activity limitation is a difficultyencountered by an individual in executing a task or action; while aparticipation restriction is a problem experienced by an individual ininvolvement in life situations.Source: World Health organization (WHO)5. A disability is a functional limitation or restriction ofan individual’s ability to perform an activity.
Source: Wikipedia6. A disability is defined as a condition or function judgedto be significantly impaired relative to the usual standard of an individual orgroup. The term is used to refer to individual functioning, including physicalimpairment, sensory impairment, cognitive impairment, intellectual impairmentmental illness, and various types of chronic disease.SOURCE: InternationalClassification of Functioning, Disability and Health PHYSICAL DISABILITY:1. A personwith a disability that has any of the long-lasting conditions thatsubstantially limit one or more physical activities such as walking, climbingstairs, reaching, lifting, or carrying.Source: Erickson, W., , C.
(2008). 2007 disability status report: United States. Ithaca, NY:Cornell University Rehabilitation Research and Training Center on DisabilityDemographics and Statistics2. Impairment of function to below the maximal level, either physically or mentally. Source: https://medical-dictionary.thefreedictionary.
com/Physical+disability3. Loss of function at the level of the whole person, which may includeinability to communicate or to perform mobility, activities of dailyliving, or necessary vocational or avocational activities.Source: World Health organization (WHO) INTRODUCTION:A person with aphysical disability is restricted by his physical ability to perform anyactivity independently such as walking, bathing, toileting, etc. Physical disabilitycan be caused by two reasons:1.
CONGENITAL/HEREDITARY:A person who has beensuffering from physical disability since birth or later due to genetic problemslike problems with muscle cells or injury during birth.2. ACQUIRED:A person whosedisability developed due to road or industrial accidents, infections such aspolio or diseases and disorders such as stroke or cancer.TYPES OF DISABILITIES:The two majorcategories come under the physical disability then they are further classifiedinto different types:1.
MUSCULOSKELETAL DISABILITY:It is the disability that unable a person to carry out differentactivities associated with movements of the body parts due to muscular or bonedeformation, diseases or degeneration. It is further classified in to differenttypes: · Loss orDeformity of Limbs· OsteogenesisImperfecta· MuscularDystrophyLoss or Deformity of LimbsIt is caused due todiseases or accidents or may be due to birth defect. The person with this kindof disability requires an artificial limb to compensate the functional loss ofactivities.
Osteogenesis ImperfectaA person whose bonesare imperfectly made from the beginning of his life it is because of adefective development of the connective tissues at the growing age that leadsto softening of bones and the affected person experiences deformed posture. Itis a hereditary disease whose reason of cause is still unknown. These personsrequire wheelchair to move as they are usually active.
Muscular Dystrophy In this type ofdisability, a person loses its muscular strength gradually due to hereditarydisorders. Muscles around the neck, shoulders and hips are more affected thanthe other muscle groups. With the time, the person with this disability alsorequires wheel chair for mobility because he loses its functional strength.
2. NEUROMUSCULO DISABILITYIt is the disabilitythat unable a person to perform controlled movements of affected body parts dueto diseases, degeneration or disorder of the nervous system. It is further classified in to differenttypes: · CerebralPalsy· SpinaBifida· Poliomyelitis· Stroke· HeadInjury· SpinalCord Injury· CerebralPalsyCerebral Palsy:It is a damage of thebrain that causes the problems of movement and coordination. The reason ofcausing cerebral palsy is by birth injury, jaundice or any infection. Theperson may have disabilities associated with cerebral palsy such asintellectual, behavioral, visual, speech etc.
He/she needs different adaptiveequipment and support for carrying out his/her activities.Spina Bifida:It is a defect inwhich spinal cord and its membrane is exposed through a gap in a backbone. It causes paralysis of the lower part of thebody. A person requires a pair of crutches or wheelchair to move.PoliomyelitisIt is an infectiousvirus disease affecting the lower part of the body that usually affectschildren and adults. It causes weakness in the body especially in both legs. Aperson with this disability requires mobility aids and some kind of support tocarry out the day to day activities. StrokeThe interruption ofblood supply of the central nervous system or having hemorrhage inside thebrain causes stroke.
A person having stroke experiences a sudden loss of asensory motor functioning of one side of the body like loss of vision, hearingor intellectual functioning. A walking stick or wheelchair is required for themobility of a person.Head InjuryThis disability iscaused by the injury in head that leads to a condition called hemiplegia wherethe sensory motor functions of one side of the body become weak.
Spinal Cord InjuryIt is a damage to thespinal cord that causes changes in function, either temporary or permanent. Itresults in paralysis or paresis. The affected person requires different deviceslike wheelchair, crutches etc. to perform daily activities independently.PROBLEMSFACED BY THE PHYSICALLY DISABLED PEOPLE:We are constantly beingaffected by the world around us, and this reflects our attitudes and approacheven towards disabled people.
According to the World Health Organization, thesurvival of persons with disability is even today threatened by attitudes andbehavior of able-bodied people. Following are the problems faced by thephysically disabled people.Parents and the home environment:Many tasks are difficult todo independently for a person with disability such as getting dressed, but thesituation can become more complicated is the parents and care takers takecomplete control over the person’s life. The problem arises when the disabledperson adopts an attitude of helplessness which has a great impact on thesocialization process, school and education, work and career as well as onone’s physical and psychological well-being.Education:People with disabilitysubject to different negative attitudes and barriers within the educationalsystem. The lack of accessibility and resources provided in education is amajor barrier for students with disability.
Another reason is theattitude of companions. Even children have misconceptions about disability andthese persons. These could be exhibited bluntly such as calling persons withdisability names. It could also be a form of harassment, like moving away fromthe person with disability, that results in fear or lack of knowledge. It may alsoresult in feelings of insecurity that lead persons with disability toexperience isolation, lack of motivation to learn and absenteeism from school.Disabled people havedifferent ways of learning and as much as possible the educational system hasto adopt different teaching methods accordingly through different subjects. Theeducational system needs to acknowledge and praise skills in various subjectsincluding arts and sports in order to enhance the self-confidence andself-esteem of the students.
Employment:It is hard for disabledperson to find a job or experience discrimination during the process ofjob-search. The second most important reason is that disabled people are notproperly trained to develop their skills further due to lack of accessibilityin educational system so that they are not as much able to get a job.Social relationships:Unfortunately, thedisabled people face lack of access to opportunities and experiences thatresults in lack of participation and contribution in a society. Differentreasons of lack of social relationships are a sense of loneliness, lack ofsocial network, feeling unworthy or useless or considered as a burden. Youngdisabled people find it difficult to engage in such as shopping, going to thecinema, clubbing etc.
Lack of budgeting skills or have financial restrictionscan also be the reasons of not engaging as much as other people do. TYPES OF SKILLS:People withdisabilities need skills to engage in their daily life activities. But thesociety and as well as their families assume that they are unable to engage insuch activities. They often lack access to basic education, that makes themunqualified to further develop their skills. This results in lack of skills, aswell as low confidence and achievement.Different types ofskills are required to make them live independently including foundation skillsthat can be acquired through education and family life, technical andprofessional skills that enable a person to carry out particular activity ortask, business skills enable a person to get success in self-employment.
Foundation skills:These skills can be acquired through basiceducation and family life. They include literacy, ability to learn, ability tosolve problem. These skills are needed for work everywhere, in all contexts andcultures.Technical,vocational and professional skills:Theseskills help disable people to carry out a particular task that how to produceor repair something. It includes carpentry, tailoring, weaving, metalwork, basketmaking, tinsmithing, shoemaking. Moreadvanced technical skills, such as computer technology, are normally referredto as professional skills.
Generally, the more advanced the techniques, thehigher the educational level required and the more formal the training, oftentaking place in technical institutions. BusinessskillsTheseskills are required to succeed in running a business activity. They includemoney and people management, as well as planning and organizational skills.Training courses which teach trades likely to lead to self-employment, such ascarpentry, radio repairs, two-wheel motor mechanics and weaving.