In physically and socially at a higher level than

2005 the federal Center for Substance Abuse Treatment (CSAT) published a study
showing a strong correlation between substance abuse treatment and crime.
Additionally, the Treatment Research Institute at the University of
Pennsylvania (2005) reported that substance abuse treatment seemed to lead to large
reductions in crime and drug use as well as being able to function physically
and socially at a higher level than normal. For many who need alcohol and drug
treatment, contact with the criminal justice system is their first opportunity
for treatment and possibly their first occasion to be diagnosed with a substance
abuse problem. Unfortunately, more intensive treatment is needed for offenders
who are in a recurring cycle of crime and drug abuse. Research suggests that
addicted offenders commit fewer crimes during periods of non-use. Studies of
offender populations have shown that cessation of and continued abstinence from
drug use is linked to reduced rates of reoffending and re-arrest. Rather than
focusing on populations that are sporadic users of illegal drugs, it may be
more effective for criminal justice programs to focus their resources on
preventing continued drug abuse by highuse offenders or concentrating on
serious juvenile offenders that are at risk of delinquency and future adult
criminality (CSAT, 2005). Increased use of drug treatment within the criminal
justice system, whether it is mandated treatment through drug courts or
optional treatment through transitional and aftercare programs, has been shown
to reduce re-arrest and new arrest rates, as well as drug use. State prisoner
participation in drug treatment programs increased from 34.3 percent in 1997 to
39.2 percent in 2004, coinciding with the continued decrease in crime rates.
Although drug treatment in prison or jail can be a means of reducing the
chances that a person will commit crime in the future, community-based
treatment is more effective and helps people reintegrate themselves into the
community. An in-depth study of a Delaware prison revealed that compared to
in-prison drug treatment, a transitional program composed of a combination of
work release, drug treatment, and aftercare services provided a more effective
environment for successful prisoner reentry. Five years after the completion of
this program, 59.6 percent of those who graduated from the 3 after care program
had no new arrests, and 47.8 percent did not return to prison or jail (Justice
Policy Institute, 2008)