In energy consumption, it has a largely outsourcing structure,

the EU, which accounts for 16% of global energy consumption, it has a largely
outsourcing structure, both in terms of oil and natural gas. The domestic
resources of the EU are very limited and meet half of their energy needs
through imports. Import dependency ratio, which is 80.2% in petroleum, is 54.5%
in natural gas and 38.2% in coal (European Commission, 2006a).


the process that has taken place since the 1990s, the European Union has begun
to set targets around the Union, in support of research on renewable energy, as
well as creating policies for greater use of renewable energy in the energy
market. The Green Book, prepared by the European Commission in 1996, focused on
the benefits of renewable energy sources. The Green Paper stressed that
renewable energy will have a positive impact on the European Union’s dependence
on energy imports and on regional development and employment issues. It also
aimed to increase the share of renewable energy sources in total energy
production to 12% by 2010. The White Paper, prepared by the European Commission
in 1997, underlined that renewable energy can play an important role in
reducing CO2 emissions, in addition to energy security. The White Paper
predicted that by 2010, 23.5% of electricity generation would be supplied from
renewable energy sources, primarily hydroelectricity. However, the European
Commission’s targets for both the Green Book and the White Paper for 2010 have
not been met, and the share of renewable energy in total energy output has
increased from 6% to almost 9%. The Union has not reached the targeted figures
because it considers the Member States’ energy policies as part of their
national interests and decides on their own national interests rather than the
Commission’s objectives (Kantörün, 2010).

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EU has increased its renewable energy resource utilization targets set by the
Kyoto Protocol to 22% in the 2001 77 EC directive, and countries have set
their own targets in this direction (EC, 2001). Within the EU countries, Sweden
and Austria have targeted the highest rates (60-78%) for 2010 in the use of
renewable energy sources. In countries with high energy consumption such as
Germany, UK, France and Italy, the targets vary between 10-25%. Comparing the
energy production statistics of 1997 with the targets of 2010, it is seen that
the UK and Belgium are over 5 times higher than the increase targets and the
lowest increase targets are 1-1.5% in Portugal, Austria, Finland, France, Spain
and Sweden seen. The rate of increase in the (Bacak, S. Külcü, R. and Ekinci,
K. 2009).