In (2001, p. 18) explains that farmer came under

In the last century, the access to meat commodities has experienced a revolutionary change.  As stated by Nierenberg (2005, p. 9) meat once used to be a commodity indicating wealth, whereas today it is easily accessible to the average middle-class population. Two-hundred-year-old cookbooks testify how rarely meat was served as a common part of an ordinary meal (Nierenberg, 2005, p. 9). Nowadays, most people in developed countries are used to encounter meat in practically every meal of their day, from breakfast to dinner. In Nierenberg’s opinion, the rise in meat consumption results from population growth and from higher incomes in developing countries. Gregory et al. (2007, p.243) also indicate that there is a correlation between the economic well-being and the increase in meat consumption. Usually, consumers in developing countries who achieve to go from low-income classes to higher ones, change their plant-based diet towards “poultry, red meats, fruit and vegetables” (Gregory et al, 2007, p.243). According to the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO), the per capita meat consumption in developed countries has doubled from 1980 to 2002 (FAO, 2006, p.4). To meet the growing high demand factory farming was introduced and adopted throughout the globe. (Nierenberg, 2005, p.11). Gatward (2001, p. 18) explains that farmer came under pressure to be able to compete in the economic world, which followed an industrializing trend in the agriculture sector and in livestock farming.De Haan et al (1997, p.53) emphasize that the “industrial production” of farm animals is the fastest growing industry in meat production. Nierenberg (2005) explains factory farming as follow:Industrial farming is a system of raising animals, using intensive production line methods that maximize the amount of meat produced, while minimizing costs. Industrial animal agriculture is characterized by high stocking densities and/or close confinement, forced growth rates, high mechanization, and low labor requirements (Nierenberg, 2005, p. 11). Impact on Animal WelfareAnimals in factory farming are subject to life in confinement where they suffer from physical and mental strains. They are confined in small, industrialized facilities with other of their species, where they often suffer from diseases, injuries or abnormal behaviors. (Nierenberg, 2005, p. 16). The steadily growing meat demand implied a connecting economic competition in the last century, where the animal itself was no longer identified as an animal. Quite the contrary, “new production methods view the animal as a resource to be exploited for immediate profit and lower prices” (Hodges et al, 2000, p. 261). In this context Dr.Turner (1999, p.6), Senior Research Officer of Compassion in World Farming Trust (CIWF), claims that animals are required to supply the farmer with its offsprings as fast as possible. According to Duncan (2005, p. 488) animal welfare is ensured when the animal has the possibility to choose its surrounding by its free choice. However, factory farming pounds the animals in wedged stocks with no possibility for them to act out their natural instincts (Aiking, 2010, p. 15). Benson (2004, p. 40) additionally outlines that farm animal in factory farming suffer from pain and stress resulting from various factors.According to Daghir (2008, p. 2), the production of poultry meat and eggs showed a steady growth in the last 35 years, even faster than those of other animals. The FAO (2013, p.3) underlines that especially the developing countries show an increase in poultry production due to its low production costs compared to other meat productions. Nierenberg (2005, p. 16) explains that in the poultry industry of factory farming chickens are either used for egg production (layers) or for meat production (broilers).  Layers are often put into “battery cages” next to thousand other chickens in confined spaces where they have practically no possibility to move. The aim hereby is to produce as many eggs as possible. Hence, the animals are manipulated with artificial lighting during the whole day. In factory farming they tend to die in earlier stages due to diseases or stress. (Nierenberg, 2005, p. 17)According to the breeder management guide from Cobb Vantress, a subsidiary of one of the largest meat producers Tyson, farmers main target concerning broiler chickens is to gain weight as fast as possible through feeding (Cobb-Vantress, 2008, p. 5).  Julian (1998, p. 1773) states that technical innovations introduced new feeding methods, which guaranteed the fastest growing cycle of a broiler chicken within the shortest time possible. However, this rapid growth also showed negative impacts on the animal such as “lameness, bone defects and deformity” (Julian, 1998, p. 1773). Lameness also called “weak legs” is explained by Weeks et al. (2011, p.762) as the weakness of the animal not having the possibility to walk anymore because of severe pain. Knowles et al (2008) even state that comparing the growth capacity of a broiler today to its capacity 50 years ago, the growth capacity has raised by over 300 %. From 25g weight gain to 100g weight gain per day! Nierenberg (2005, p.16) concludes that the life of an animal held in a factory farm concept undergo suffering, diseases and stress during their life until they finally are brought to slaughterhouses where the animals are killed in stressful conditions. Environmental ImpactFactory farming does contribute massively to environmental pollution. According to Zoran et al.  (2015), the rising meat production through livestock is one of the biggest factors, endangering our environment through various factors. “There is a direct link between our demand for the maximum productivity from farm animals and environmental pollution” (Turner, 1999, p. 5). According to Wiecek (2015, p. 347), 15% to 24% of greenhouse gas emissions is due to livestock production. Clay (2004, p.476) explains that in the United States farm animals excrete about 1.4 billion tons of manure each year. However, it is far from impossible to reutilized all of it as compound fertilizer. Thence the manure and chemical fertilizers are being discharged into waters which have already led to dramatic environmental contamination (Clay, 2004, p. 476). Specific chemical substances, as for example nitrogen in fertilizer, reduce the “dissolved oxygen” in the waters and are a leading cause of “oxygen depletion”. These conditions make the environment uninhabitable. The American Institute of Biological Sciences outlines that those chemical fertilizers have let to so-called “dead zones” in the Gulf of Mexico, where a large amount of dead fish has been observed (Boody et al, 2006, p. 839; De Haan et al, 1997, p. 83). Furthermore, Clay (2004, p. 478) outlines resident farmers are often not even able to drink their own tap water due to chemical fertilizer and manure pollution.De Haan et al. (1997, p.79) outline that livestock farming is a significant contributor to methane emission. Not only is methane more deleterious to the environment than carbon dioxide is, but its emissions are strongly boosted by the livestock industry. The digestion of ruminants has specific constitutions, which ends in a “relatively large methane emissions per unit of feed energy consumed” (De Haan et al, 1997, p. 80).  According to Clay (2004, p. 474), two-thirds of our earth’s surface is used to keep livestock going. However, this is not a paused state. He outlines that every year there are measures taken to enlarge and create new grazing lands for extensive farm factory. He compares the yearly amount being deforested in our earth’s rainforests with the one to New York State. Turner (1999, p. 19) gives an important statement in saying that factory farming engrosses such high numbers of animals kept in a specific land surface, that it is impossible to provide at the same time the feed needed to aliment the animals living on it. Since the ability to transform land to grassland has reached limits in many countries, the idea of expanding deforestation into more rural parts of the word, such as South America, have come up (Asner et al, 2004, p. 7). Smil (2013, p. 153-154) adds that deforesting land in the Amazonian environment has the main purpose to maintain mass production of meat in factory farming in changing tropical rain forest to croplands. Since 1960 deforestation for livestock was mainly taken place in South and Central America. The main purpose is to obtain productive land for maize and soy. Ultimately this has led to severe loss of biodiversity in the rainforests (De Haan et al, 2001, p. 18).Prospects of Factory FarmingAccording to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations the demand for food in 2050 is going to be 70% higher than it was in 2010. Meat would need to grow to an additional amount of 200 million tons per year to reach the estimated global population demand (FAO, 2009, p. 2). Gregory et al ( 2007, p. 243) provide an interesting future prospect in saying that demand for meat will primary rise in developing countries such as China. Nevertheless, they are sure about the fact that the rising global demand will be met by the industry of factory farming. However, Gregory et al. (2007, p.246) continue in saying that through global concerns about environmental issues and animal welfare there has also been a growing upward trend in the last eight years of the consumption of organic and free-range animal products. This is also shown by Wright et al (2008, p. 31) who highlight that in a survey most asked people were convinced that animal welfare is important when it comes to high quality of the product. Smil (2013, p. 211) professor of the environment faculty in the University of Manitoba, also indicates that through all those concerns there will have to be made amendments in the system of factory farming due to all negative impacts it has on various scales. He adds that plant-based food crops bring higher outcomes of food products when compared to meat production. Consequently, food crops build a solid ground for substantially more efficient and more sustainable food production compared to meat production. Smil (2013, p. 214) overall relies on the fact that there has to be a reduction of people’s meat consumption and the willingness to change to more expensive meat products from non-factory farms, so that ongoing negative effects of factory farming can be reduced.Public concerns about environmental impacts, health issues and animal welfare are rising on a continuous scale, which speaks against the industry. However, there has not been much research found what measures will have to be taken in the future to stop factory farming in accordance to the increasing demand for meat commodities(Gregory et al, 2007, p. 248). The investigated studies showed merely what factory farming is and on which scale they affect our environment. Therefore the continuous study concentrates on the empirical investigation on what extent this industry will continue, as this is going to be pursued in the next section.