How Does ElectricCars Work? Electric cars aresomething that show up in the news all the time.
Actually, there are many reasonsfor the non-stopping interest in these kind of automobiles: Allcars—gas, electric, hydrogen, or using any other “fuel”—areessentially energy conversion devices: they change stored potentialenergy (P.E) into kinetic energy (K.E). In a conventional car, the energy is keptor in other words is stored in chemical form, locked inside the gas we havepumped in our tank; We release it through a chemical exothermic reactionhappening inside the engine in which the hydrocarbon molecules in gasoline burnwith oxygen in the air to produce heat, which pushes the pistons that turn thewheels. In fact, this all happens inside the engine’s cylinders, so that is thereason we call it internal combustion.Electriccars also use stored chemical energy, however they release itelectrochemically, without any type of combustion, as electrons ping from their slowly discharging batteries; thereis no burning of fuel therefore no air pollution spewing from the tailpipe (exhaust), and no emissionsof any kind are produced by the car. (A) Electric cars create less pollutionthan gasoline-poweredcars, so that is why they are named as environmentally friendly compared togasoline-powered vehicles (especially in cities).(B) Any news story about hybrid cars usually talks aboutelectric cars as well.
Note: A vehicle is a hybrid if it utilizes more than one form ofonboard energy to achieve propulsion. In practice, that means a hybrid willhave a traditional internal-combustion engine and a fuel tank, as well as oneor more electric motors and a battery pack.(C) Vehicles powered by fuel cells areelectric cars, and fuel cells are getting a lot of attention right now in thenews all over the world.An electric car is a car powered by an electric motor rather than a gasoline engine.The importance of electric vehicles: Gasis a scarce, natural resource, electricity is cheaper than gas. , electricitycan come from renewable resources such as solar and wind power, electric carspollute less than gas-powered cars, electric cars are much more reliable andrequire less maintenance than gas-powered cars, we do not even need to get youroil changed every 3,000miles, cheapness in amount of fuel consumed, produce 27per cent less CO2 than petrol cars, help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.Key components of an electric car(A)InstanttorqueThere is not agreat deal we can do to control the output from a car engine because it is achemical machine, driven by an important simple chemical reaction betweenoxygen and fuel that produces useful mechanical power.
As a matter of fact, aninternal combustion engine is just like the external combustion engine we will findon something like a steam engine. In fact, ifwe want more power, we need to burn more fuel more quickly. Actually, a basiclaw of physics called the “law ofconservation of energy” tells usthat—which is why operating a car’s accelerator is informally called”stepping on the gas”: burning gas faster produces more power and basicallydelivers more speed. Apart from the accelerator, supplying more or less fuel,the other two key controls of a conventional car engine are the gears (Function:transforming the power coming from the engine, so the wheels turn quickly withlow force or slowly with high force) and the clutch (Function: briefly engagingor disengaging the engine’s power from the gearbox altogether). In addition tothis, we need the gears and the clutch because of basic limitations in how anengine works—as a machine that enjoys spinning around thousands of times aminute, however fast we are driving (the engine keeps turning, burning fuel andcosting money, even if we stopped at a traffic signal).The motor in anelectric car is completely different. It has no preference whether it spins slowor fast—it is amazing at delivering the same torque at any speed(B) Electric motorThese motors arequite different from gasoline engines—and not just in the fuel they burn.
Anengine needs to spin round relatively quickly to work efficiently/perfectly (normallythousands of times a minute), but the car’s wheels seldom need to go anythinglike that fast. The power an engine can produce at any given moment may be verydifferent from what the driver needs. For example, if we are moving off from acold start, or in a traffic signal, we need the engine to produce a great dealof force which is known as Torque at a relatively low speed, whereas if we areovertaking on a speedy highway, we will need the opposite: less torque and morespeed.
(C) TransmissionIn theory, an electric motor can drivea full-sized electric car just as simply as a toy train, without the clumsy oldgearbox and transmission we would use in a conventional gasoline-engine car. In practice,electric cars are quite more complex. Toys are small and move fairly slowly,while real cars are much bigger and go faster. When a real car corners, its twooutside wheels are traveling around a curve of bigger radius than its twoinside wheels, but in exactly the same time, which means they have to spin somehowfaster. In fact, the same is true of toy cars, but the effect is too small tonotice.
That is why real cars need complex transmissions with speed-adjustinggears called differentials thatallow one pair of wheels to go at a slightly different speed—faster on theoutside of a curve, slower on the inside—than the other.Thesame happens in an electric car when it goes around a corner, and that rulesout any kind of simple transmission (for example, a single electric motordriving the two back wheels from a common axle). One solution is to have a fro