How there is no burning of fuel therefore no

How Does Electric
Cars Work? Electric cars are
something that show up in the news all the time. Actually, there are many reasons
for the non-stopping interest in these kind of automobiles: All
cars—gas, electric, hydrogen, or using any other “fuel”—are
essentially energy conversion devices: they change stored potential
energy (P.E) into kinetic energy (K.E). In a conventional car, the energy is kept
or in other words is stored in chemical form, locked inside the gas we have
pumped in our tank; We release it through a chemical exothermic reaction
happening inside the engine in which the hydrocarbon molecules in gasoline burn
with oxygen in the air to produce heat, which pushes the pistons that turn the
wheels. In fact, this all happens inside the engine’s cylinders, so that is the
reason we call it internal combustion.Electric
cars also use stored chemical energy, however they release it
electrochemically, without any type of combustion, as electrons ping from their slowly discharging batteries; there
is no burning of fuel therefore no air pollution spewing from the tailpipe (exhaust), and no emissions
of any kind are produced by the car. (A)   
Electric cars create less pollution
than gasoline-powered
cars, so that is why they are named as environmentally friendly compared to
gasoline-powered vehicles (especially in cities).(B)   
Any news story about hybrid cars usually talks about
electric cars as well.Note: A vehicle is a hybrid if it utilizes more than one form of
onboard energy to achieve propulsion. In practice, that means a hybrid will
have a traditional internal-combustion engine and a fuel tank, as well as one
or more electric motors and a battery pack.(C)   
Vehicles powered by fuel cells are
electric cars, and fuel cells are getting a lot of attention right now in the
news all over the world.An electric car is a car powered by an electric motor rather than a gasoline engine.The importance of electric vehicles: Gas
is a scarce, natural resource, electricity is cheaper than gas. , electricity
can come from renewable resources such as solar and wind power, electric cars
pollute less than gas-powered cars, electric cars are much more reliable and
require less maintenance than gas-powered cars, we do not even need to get your
oil changed every 3,000miles, cheapness in amount of fuel consumed, produce 27
per cent less CO2 than petrol cars, help to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.Key components of an electric car(A)
Instant
torqueThere is not a
great deal we can do to control the output from a car engine because it is a
chemical machine, driven by an important simple chemical reaction between
oxygen and fuel that produces useful mechanical power. As a matter of fact, an
internal combustion engine is just like the external combustion engine we will find
on something like a steam engine. In fact, if
we want more power, we need to burn more fuel more quickly. Actually, a basic
law of physics called the “law of
conservation of energy” tells us
that—which is why operating a car’s accelerator is informally called
“stepping on the gas”: burning gas faster produces more power and basically
delivers more speed. Apart from the accelerator, supplying more or less fuel,
the other two key controls of a conventional car engine are the gears (Function:
transforming the power coming from the engine, so the wheels turn quickly with
low force or slowly with high force) and the clutch (Function: briefly engaging
or disengaging the engine’s power from the gearbox altogether). In addition to
this, we need the gears and the clutch because of basic limitations in how an
engine works—as a machine that enjoys spinning around thousands of times a
minute, however fast we are driving (the engine keeps turning, burning fuel and
costing money, even if we stopped at a traffic signal).The motor in an
electric car is completely different. It has no preference whether it spins slow
or fast—it is amazing at delivering the same torque at any speed(B)  Electric motorThese motors are
quite different from gasoline engines—and not just in the fuel they burn. An
engine needs to spin round relatively quickly to work efficiently/perfectly (normally
thousands of times a minute), but the car’s wheels seldom need to go anything
like that fast. The power an engine can produce at any given moment may be very
different from what the driver needs. For example, if we are moving off from a
cold start, or in a traffic signal, we need the engine to produce a great deal
of force which is known as Torque at a relatively low speed, whereas if we are
overtaking on a speedy highway, we will need the opposite: less torque and more
speed.(C)  TransmissionIn theory, an electric motor can drive
a full-sized electric car just as simply as a toy train, without the clumsy old
gearbox and transmission we would use in a conventional gasoline-engine car. In practice,
electric cars are quite more complex. Toys are small and move fairly slowly,
while real cars are much bigger and go faster. When a real car corners, its two
outside wheels are traveling around a curve of bigger radius than its two
inside wheels, but in exactly the same time, which means they have to spin somehow
faster. In fact, the same is true of toy cars, but the effect is too small to
notice. That is why real cars need complex transmissions with speed-adjusting
gears called differentials that
allow one pair of wheels to go at a slightly different speed—faster on the
outside of a curve, slower on the inside—than the other.

The
same happens in an electric car when it goes around a corner, and that rules
out any kind of simple transmission (for example, a single electric motor
driving the two back wheels from a common axle). One solution is to have a fro

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