“Healthy diseases and cancer” (World Health Organisation Regional Office

“Healthy housing covers the provision of functional and adequate
physical, social and mental conditions for health, safety, hygiene, comfort,
and privacy. A healthy home, therefore, is not a specially designed house but a
residential setting for a household that includes all standards and “best
practice” knowledge of dwelling construction and immediate environment design”
(World Health Organization, 2004). Housing conditions can have a huge impact on
an individual’s health, such as financially or socially. Housing conditions
come under social health inequality so, in larger countries, housing conditions
requires a strong policy and local professionals to develop more interventions
and to provide a safe housing condition for everyone. “Poor housing contributes
to many avoidable diseases and injuries, including respiratory, nervous system
and cardiovascular diseases and cancer” (World Health Organisation Regional
Office for Europe, 2012). There are many aspects of housing that can affect
health, such as Dampness this occurs when the house is overcrowded or less
heating, insulation, ventilation and damps indoor due to low- income
communities. (Institute of Medicine 2004). Children are most likely to be
living in an overcrowded house compared with adults or pensioners, they are
more likely to get meningitis and respiratory problems. Respiratory and
infectious health problems occur in all age groups. Poor housing could also
lead to mental health issues, such as overcrowding could be stressful like lack
of security and fear of crime can affect an individual’s well-being and lead to
psychological stress. (Pevalin et al, 2008) explain that “establishing that
poor housing conditions are a cause of poor health rather than simply
associated with poor health is inherently difficult because of the confounding
effects of other variables that influence health”. Most of the people could be
living in a poor housing due to their low income which can affect mentally.
There are many policies and interventions for healthy housing like people could
talk to their local council for housing advice, contacting a specialist
organisation to talk about poor housing problems.

Water pollution is contamination of water bodies and waterways by any
chemical, physical or biological agent that makes it hazardous for public
health. Water is one of the most important everyday source for everyone, also
used as domestic and industrial purpose. Water pollution occurs when people
just throw plastics or other wastes to the water which turns into poisonous
chemical waste. “WHO estimate that diarrhoeal disease accounts for
approximately 3.6% of the total DALY global burden of disease, and of this it
is estimated that 58% is attributable to unsafe water supply, sanitation and
hygiene, most of which is in developing countries” (WHO, 2014). Water pollution
is mostly suffered by the organisms that survive in water. In human
perspective, people die every day due to polluted and infected water. Some of
the water pollution is caused by industrial waste, they produce massive amount
of waste which contains poisonous chemicals and other pollutants which then
cause air pollution and it damages the environment around us. Industries do not
have a proper waste management system, so they drain the waste to the fresh
water which then leads river and then to sea. These toxic chemicals can change
the colour of the water, temperature change in water and exposing to serious
hazard to the water animals. “In developing countries, 70 percent of industrial
wastes are dumped untreated into waters, polluting the usable water supply”
(NationalGeographic.com). Another cause for water pollution is sewage and water
waste, which carries a lot of harmful bacteria and toxic chemical which leads
to serious health problems. One of the common water pollutant is known as
Pathogens, found in sewers of houses. Microorganisms in water can cause some
serious diseases which then act like carriers. These carriers then form a
contact with an individual and a common example of this process is called
Malaria. “in 2015, there were an estimated 212 million malaria cases and some
429,000 malaria deaths” (World Health Organisation). Water pollution can cause
health problems to the humans such as chemicals in water can have a negative
impact on health. Pesticides can harm the central nervous system and cause
cancer, Arsenic is a pollutant which also known as a poison. Consuming a small
amount of arsenic is very dangerous for the humans as well as for animals. Too
much arsenic in water can cause abdominal problems including cramps, bloating,
irritation of the digestive system and lead to organ failure. “The use of iron
chips to filter out arsenic from contaminated well water in Bangladeshi
households” (Kinniburgh and Smedley, 2001). There are many more effects of
water pollution that can affect people as well as animals, but also there are
lots of way to reduce water pollution. There are many interventions available
to reduce water pollution. One of the common intervention for water pollution
is to stop throwing wastes, plastics and other drugs into the water. “Adapting
practices such as organic farming and integrated pest management could help
protect waterways” (Scheierling,1995). The policy and regulation intervention
for water pollution includes water treatment, where they check if the water is
drinkable. People could reduce the use of fertilisers, pesticides and animal
waste. Also, could develop and maintain an effective on-site wastewater and
sewage systems to reduce water pollution.

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Smoking comes under lifestyle determinant of health. “In 2016, those
aged 18 to 24 and 25 to 34 reported the highest prevalence of cigarette smoking
19 % and 21 % respectively, while those aged 60 and over reported the lowest
prevalence 7 %” (Statistics on smoking, England, 2017). Smoking is one of the
biggest influence on public health, it has a lot of factors that affect an
individual completely. “Smoking is one of the biggest causes of death and
illness in the UK. Every year around 100,000 people in the UK die from smoking,
with much more living with debilitating smoking-related illnesses” (NHS
Choices). Smoking causes a negative impact on health such as cancer including
lung, bladder, liver, and stomach, heart disease, stroke and chronic
respiratory disease, smoking whilst pregnant can cause premature birth,
miscarriage and low birth weight. People tend to start smoking due to peer
pressure, to look good or to fit into the group. And, it affects the family
i.e. if a family member gets ill by smoking, they won’t be able to go work and
they could be suffering from low income. There are so many interventions to
stop smoking, the best treatment would be talking to a GP or an NHS stop
smoking for advice. One of an effective intervention is Nicotine replacement
therapy, it is a medication that provides with a low level of nicotine and
other chemicals. NRT helps to reduce the withdrawal effects such as bad moods and
craving which occur when individual stops smoking. Another effective
intervention for stop smoking is E-cigarettes, it’s an electronic device that
delivers nicotine in a vapour. This allows for people to inhale without any tar
or other chemicals.


“Lifestyles is defined as collective patterns of health-related behaviours
based on choices from options available to people according to their life
chances” (Cockerham, 2000, p.1314). lifestyles make an individual choose what
they want to do to make their health better. Factors which affect lifestyles
are what individual eats, what psychoactive substances they are taking or what
physical activities they do. Each factor has got health issues, such as
consuming a high level of sugar can cause diabetes and low physical activities
can cause result in low well-being and low level of physical fitness.


Whitehead (1990) states that “Equity in health implies that ideally,
everyone should have a fair opportunity to attain their full health potential
and, more pragmatically, that no one should be disadvantaged from achieving
this potential if it can be avoided”. Equity in health portrays that everyone
should have equal opportunity for the care. Health equity adds an ethical and
moral dimension to health inequalities.

“Health inequalities can be defined as differences in health status or
in the distribution of health determinants between different population groups”
(World Health Organization, 2016).  It is
important to look at what differences are between health inequality and
equality are. Health inequalities differences between people are related to
biological, social or environmental or other factors. These factors can have a
huge impact on people because they experience poor health and shorter lives.
Whereas health inequality is avoidable, it’s unfair and unjust they are


Environmental is another the determinant of health, can be divided into
three levels; domestic which deals with water, sanitation and food
contamination that have been influenced health conditions. Local deals with
water pollution, air pollution and chemical wastes that affect health. And
lastly, global factors deal with acid rain, global warming and the health
hazards which has a massive impact on the environment.

“The social determinants of health are the conditions in which people
are born, grow, live, work and age, including the health system” (WHO, 2009).
These can include money, global resources which are influenced by policy.
Social determinant of health is responsible for health inequalities. To reduce
health inequality, it is important to identify the factors that are affecting
health to improve the health status of the people.

Biological characteristics of the body can influence the health by the
functioning of the body systems. Biological factors are identified as
determinants of health because they effect differently in societies, cultures,
and countries.

Determinants of health are defined as “The range of behavioural,
biological, socio-economic and environmental factors that influence the health
status of individuals or populations” (World Health Organization, 1998). It is
the interaction between these factors which affect individuals and the general
population of the health. Therefore, interactions that target the determinants
of health are likely to be effective. Determinants of health can reach any limits
of health care and public health sectors, education, transportation, housing,
and environment; it can be important for improving the public health.
“Health is the state of complete physical, mental and social wellbeing not
merely absence of disease and infirmity” WHO (1948). There are many factors
that can influence the determine health differences, for example; biological
factors such as age, sex, and ethnicity; lifestyles such as smoking, alcohol
consumption, diet and physical activity; environmental including housing
quality, the workplace, and agriculture. “Most experts agree that these
‘broader determinants of health’ are more important than health care in
ensuring a healthy population” (The King’s Fund, 2015).

This essay will focus on what determinant of health means to the public
health and will explain how three different types of determinants of health can
have an impact on individuals and community health. The essay will also
demonstrate how these factors can affect health by giving relevant examples.
Finding out about what health interventions out there can improve the health of