HCI token such as ID cards or keys or



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Biometrics or biometric recognition is nothing but the
use of anatomical and behavioural identifiers such as voice, fingerprints, hand
geometry and face etc, which can recognise any human or person automatically.
Traditional credential based systems no longer suffice to verify a person’s
identity. Because the biometrical characteristics misplaced or shared or forged,
which are considered more reliable for a human recognition than traditional
token such as ID cards or keys or knowledge based methods such as PIN or
passwords. Biometric recognition provides better efficiency, better security,
and increased user convenience. It is also being increasingly developed in enormous
number of civilian and government applications, for example (passports, border
crossing, computer network logon, mobile phone, web access and smartcard).

Various biometric identifiers can also be compared on
the following factors: distinctiveness, universality, collectability,
permanence, performance, acceptability, and circumvention. Many of them are
developed and several of them have been deployed. The examples above given such
as finger prints are once that are widely used. Each biometric trait has its
strengths and weaknesses and the choice of a trait typically depends on the
requirements of the application. Given that there are about 6.5 billion humans
on earth and assuming each person has ten fingers, and biometrics are often
considered synonyms. Now many agencies use automatic fingerprint identification
systems. (maltoni, 2009) 


Biometrics are the new and upcoming technology which
is safe and secure for different organisations and security problems. Recent
advances in biometric identification. Example-Alphonse Bertillon, chief of the
criminal identification division of the police department in Paris, developed
and then practised the idea of using many body measurements to identify
criminals in the mid-19th century. Soon after his discovery, many
major law enforcement departments embraced the idea of first “booking” the
fingerprints of criminals and sorting it in a data base. Later, the left-over
fingerprints at the scene of crime could be lifted and matched with
fingerprints in the database to know the identity of the criminals. Also, it is
used extensively to identify the thief’s, such as security clearance for
employees for the sensitive jobs, fatherhood determination, forensics etc. This
system is essentially a pattern recognising system that is operated by the
biometric data from an individual and extracting the data and comparing to the
other data. Depending on an application context, a biometric system may operate
either in verification mode or identification mode. (DHIR, 2010)







Facial hand and infrared thermos gram



Voice, signature, palmprint, retina scan,
hand geometry.



In today world, fingerprint is the best and secure way
of presenting a secured atmosphere. Many of the countries have been using
fingerprints for the personal identification. And the result of matching is
very accurate and high. A fingerprint is the pattern of different ridges and
the valleys on top surface of the fingertip, the formation of which is
determined during the first seven months of fetal development. There are many
kinds of fingerprints used is daily bases such as in office entries, fuel station
login, for laptops, and in India they also use the people finger prints to
apply for an ID card etc. It is available these days and affordable in vast
number of applications, the fingerprint recognition systems these days are
accurate and adequate for verification systems. A problem with these fingerprint
systems is they need a vast amount of computational resources, mainly when
operating in an identification mode. Finally, the fingerprint biometrics play a
major part for identification. (DHIR, 2010)


The widely used biometric system in the modern world
is by signature. The signatures need contact with the paper and the effort of
the user, they have been used in many ways such as commercial transactions and
proof for an individual for verification. Signatures are the behavioural biometrics
that change from time to time depending upon the physical and emotional
conditions of the signatories. Each user will be having different type of signatures
based on the user, and this also have an impact on the safety of any


The full form of a DNA is Deoxyribo nucleic acid. This
is one of the safest and best code for one’s individuality in the case of
biometrics. The DNA can’t be determined in few cases such as in twins. But its
is the widely used in the context of forensic applications and crime checks for
recognising a person. DNA has also been used to help in cases of clarify
paternity, in immigration, medical research, or in parentage testing. It is
also used in the study of animals etc.


Voice is the combination of physiological and behavioural
biometrics. The features of the voice are based on distinct parts in a human
body such as vocal tracts, cavities, lips, mouth etc. A disadvantage of voice-based
recognition is that speech features are sensitive to a number of factors such
as background noise. The companies such as apple and google use Siri and google
home which as the latest technology which is being used for easy going through
the voice.

Biometric systems:

Multimodal biometric is a method that consolidates the
evidences obtained from various sources to overcome the limitations of unimodal
biometric systems (Hong, 1999) . Consequently,
population coverage is increased as well as it can work in more robust
conditions. Furthermore, MBSs are more reliable because independent biometric
modalities are used. In certain situations, the user might find one form of
biometric identification that is not exact enough for identification due to
non-universality. Fingerprint biometric is an example, where at least 4% of the
population have worn and/or cut. In MBS, if one of the technologies is unable
to identify, the system can still use the others to accurately identify. All
the biometric systems cannot be spoofed simultaneously; thus, the probability
of accepting an impostor as genuine is greatly reduced with MBS. The presence
of a live user can be ensured by asking the user to provide a random subset of
biometric characteristics (example, second sentence should be provided first,
and then first sentence should be provided for speaker recognition), movement
of the face in random direction (example, first move the face in right, and
then in left for face based recognition), data in random block (example, third
block should be signed first, and then second), etc. Therefore, challenge response type
of mechanism can be used to improve the security. In MBS, system administrator
can decide the level of security. For a high security region, they may require
all the biometric identifiers to recognize the person or for a lower security
region, only some of them to recognize the person. MBSs increase the cost and
verification time. The following are different methods for implementing MBSs in
person recognition applications.

(sahoo, 2012)


Biometric salting

Non-invertible Transforms





Any biometric based technology perceived as
dehumanizing and as a threat to an individual’s privacy rights. As the technology
is growing faster and faster with more proofs of the information is being
identified and the privacy of every individual is being secured. Example-where
is an individual? What is the individual hiding? Etc. There would be some
serious issues in the case of biometric identification such as bank passwords,
medical history or any suspicious things of an individual. There can be a
negative effect on the privacy which helps in keeping the information secret,
but some sources such as hacking can be a threat for the upcoming generations.
This is true for which the user’s biometric information will be private and it
will be only used for the expressed purpose for which the data is collected. Some
of the countries which use biometrics are India, Australia, Canada etc.     (Jain, 2006)


Reduced operational costs

Improvised security

Cannot be forgotten or lost

Improvised customer experience


Systems are not 100% accurate

We cannot reset once compromised

Environment and usage can affect

Require integration and additional hardware