Goal Line Technology in Association Football
There are many high-profile incidents and
misjudgments in association football games. Goal line incidents in particular
triggered the International Football Association Board to reconsider the
introduction of goal-line technology into the rules of the game.
The decision to use goal- line technology was formalized at its annual business
meeting in 2010. (Jérôme
Valcke, 2013) Also,
announcement that goal line technology would be used in the 2014 FIFA World Cup
to be hosted by Brazil. This invigorated retrieved interest and dispute
regarding its accuracy and dependability, its influence on the liquidity and
rhythm of the game, its influence on the nature of the game. (Suruial,2013) When
controversial decisions such as high-profile incidents and misjudgments are made, the
referee sometimes get more pressures and tensions from players, fans and clubs.
The purpose of this paper is to discuss the solutions of incidents and misjudgments in association
in the past, the function of goal-line technology used in soccer and the
system’s future. The following three themes of the paper are knowledge of
technology, effect for game, game justice.
Words: Goal line technology, association football, referee,
justice, information technology.
technology tools used in sports industry currently are hot technology growth
point in global sports development. While researching texts written about information technology used in
soccer, I found there are many authors have published articles about
the high-profile incidents and misjudgments in
particularly sports journals and newspapers. These authors
often placed the sports event they were studying into an historical context by
discussing the important events in sports of the year in which the article was
published. However, while these authors discuss journals and newspapers, I
could not find much discussion about another important source of sports
knowledge: information technology used in sports. My
goal in this paper is to introduce the current situations of high-profile incidents and misjudgments in
soccer games. Also, it will discuss information technology tools used in professional soccer games
in the past and the various effects and how they will advance in the future. In
order to give a more detailed analysis, I choose to focus on only goal-line technology.
The cause to introduce goal-line technology
grew louder in history seasons following a number of high-profile incidents; the
disputed goals (the entire ball must completely cross the goal line for a goal
to be awarded) have marred the sport at its highest levels for years. There is
a famous example in soccer history that Bell introduces in her article that “In
1966, England, as the host, won its first and only World Cup title, over West
Germany, on an overtime goal by Geoff Hurst that is still the subject of
intense debate.” (Bell,2012) In that moment, the science technology can’t
support people to use any technical skills to solve these problems. Also, in recent seasons there are still a
number of high-profile incidents, most notably the non-awarding of a goal after
Frank Lampard shot across the line in the match between England and Germany at
the 2010 FIFA (Federation International de Football Association) World Cup. (Bell,2012)
This goal-line incident in particular triggered
the International Football Association Board decision to reconsider the
introduction of goal-line technology into the laws of the game.
in the past
Before this technology was wide used in soccer
games, there were lots of high-profile incidents and misjudgments in games.
Therefore, how did soccer associations like FIFA and UEFA (Union of European
Football Association) deal with these problems before? The answer is to add
referees near the door line to help the main referee confirm whether a goal is
scored. As we know, there were only three referees in a soccer game before. The
main referee is the person who needs to make sure that the game runs smoothly
and players play under the rules of the game during the course of a match.
Also, there were two assistant referees who were enabled to alarm the main
referee in certain situations such as players offside or invasions of the rules
of the game accident out of the view of the referee. However, FIFA adds
referees near both lines to deal with incidents and misjudgments in games this
solution was also not perfect. Sometimes referees still make mistake in games,
because they also hard to confirm whether a goal was scored used by human eyes.
more than two years of comprehensive testing, goal line technology conducted by
a technology company named EMPA. In its experimental
stages a promising initiative to introduce technology in soccer has been a
“smartball” loaded with a computer chip, jointly developed by German
companies Cairos Technologies and the Fraunhofer Institute for Integrated
Circuits, an engineering research and software development company (Fowler,
2013). In an independent test institute based in Switzerland, the iPhone
company decided to approve the principle of the use of goal line technology in
association football. Based on the pass/fail test requirements to technology
providers, namely Goal Ref and Hawkeye, the company became the first to pass
all the necessary tests. The two companies subsequently signed license
agreements with FIFA in October 2012, therefore, being granted official authorization
to install their respective goal line technology systems worldwide.
line technology is supported by Hawk-eye system and Goal control system. For an
long time, the Hawk-Eye technology has been a leading multiple ball tracking
system (McIlroy, 2008). The Hawk-eye system is developed by
engineers of Roke Manor Research Limited, which has been used in cricket,
tennis and snooker. The system is based on the triangulation principle and uses
visual images and time data provided by high-speed cameras that are located in
different areas of the site. Also, the Hawk-eye system needs to set up 6
cameras, worth around 250 thousand euros, around the stadium. According
to the inventor of the system, Paul Hawkins said that if the ball is completely
blocked, then the system will fail, in order to achieve accuracy, at least 25%
of the ball need to be visible. In 2014, the World Cup in Brazil adopted a
German goal line technology system developed by a German company called
Goal-Control, each costing about 100,000 euros. The system uses 14 high-speed
cameras to transmit digital photos to the data placed on the top of the
stadium. After analyzing the data, the system transmits the result to the
special watch worn by the referee. If the ball passes the gate line, the watch
will show “goal”. The whole process takes less than a second. (Hawk-Eye,
is another goal line technology that has won attractive with FIFA (Fowler,
2013). The Goal-Control system response time is so fast, on the one hand due to
the observation of the goal of the camera up to 500 times per second camera
speed, but on the other hand is the smart watch real-time receive signal. The
Goal-Control system not only has high temporal resolution, but also has strong
spatial resolution, and the three-dimensional spatial resolution reaches 5
millimeters. The excellent performance of time resolution and spatial
resolution makes the Goal-Control system have the capability and reliability of
timely response, and has passed the strict FIFA audit. Goal-Control is a
supplier of equipment, which needs to be installed by FIFA Approved Firm before
it is used. The professional workers in an installation company, need to arrive
at the stadium before the game to complete a site survey. This involves them
walking around the stadium locating ideal positions for the cameras locating
possible areas for the booth and also cable runs. It takes approximately a week
or a week and half to complete all the installation in the system setup. It
takes a team of about six to install all the cables and all the equipment.
installations passed the final tests and FIFA gave the green light for the
respective systems to be used during the competition. The final intrinsic
element in the implementation of goal line technology is the pre-match check by
the match officials. The match officials are required to test the functionality
of the goal line technology in both goals ensuring the system is fully
functioning before the first whistle blows. All referee checks were performed
successfully in FIFA Club World Cup in Japan 2012 and the goal line technology
was used in all eight matches. The announcement that goal line technology would
be used in the 2014 FIFA World Cup to be hosted by Brazil sparked renewed
interest and debate regarding its accuracy and reliability, its influence on
the fluidity and rhythm of the game, its influence on the nature of the game,
its practical implementation (Ryall, 2012), and the psychological effects it
would have on referees. With a good start, many associations brought goal line
technology in to their own soccer games such as European Champion Club’s Cup,
MLS (Major League Soccer) and FIFA Confederations Cup. In
the Confederations Cup final in 2013, Italy won 5-4. In the twenty-fourth minute,
Diamante had a direct free kick on the right side of the far corner. The ball
hit in remote column after hitting the back of Muslera’s head then flew to the
gate. He kicks the gate line out, scored the first goal, and FIFA and put this
goal on Diamante. However, after the confirmation of the goal line technology,
then the whole ball did not cross the line. It’s the last kick of the ball into
the Astoria, FIFA promptly corrected goal personnel, confirmed the goal for
Italy was Astoria. Also, FIFA allowed the use of goal line technology in 2014
Brazil World Cup in all 64 games. In Brazil World Cup B group
first round, Chile beat Australia 3-1. Fifty-nine minutes later, Vargas grabbed
the ball in front of the restricted area, and the ball passed the goalkeeper.
Wilkinson finished the rescue on the gate line. The goal line technique
determines that the ball has not been inserted. Still in World Cup
in Brazil June 16, 2014 French team VS Honduras team, the Honduras goalkeeper
quickly kicked the football out of the gate line, but the referee confirmed
that was a goal by goal line technology. The first goal of the world cup
technology introduced into the stadium. The technology is monitored by 14
ultra-high definition cameras placed on the court, and once the ball goes in,
it will alert the wrist watch on the wrist in one second. In France’s match
against Honduras, it quickly found its own value.
Although the good results
goal line technology have produced, and supporters insist the
goal line technology will reduce referee errors in the game, there are still
many criticisms about this technology. A lot of criticism comes from FIFA
itself, including ex-chairman Blatter. In addition to technical criticism,
critics point out that the technology will damage the human impact of the game,
thereby reducing the fun of people arguing over mistakes. Blatter said:
“other sports will change the rules according to the emerging technology,
but we don’t do so, so as to maintain the charm and popularity of football”.
(Bell 2012) He believes that if the introduction of the Hawkeye system will
make players and coaches constantly request replay, It will disturb the
continuity of football matches. And the introduction of Adidas’s system will
increase the monopoly of the sports company to the football industry. Other
critics said it would be costly to adopt this technology at all levels of
events, especially for small or poor football associations. FIFA officials said
they were more inclined to “better law enforcement” or more referees,
rather than using technology to solve problems. Supporters have cited a number
of wrong goal line decisions to determine the results of the race to hit back,
and pointed out that after the initial test of FIFA, this technology has
improved a lot. Supporters also argue that priority should be given to the
technology’s help to the referee, not whether it will cause disunity of the
rules because not all the football associations can enforce it. As we all know,
FIFA has never supported the application of door line technology and
Ex-President Blatter has made a firm statement that he will not let the door
line technology into the stadium during his term.
J Suruial, points out that
However, chairman’s attitude has
undergone a great change of 180 degrees in 2012. In an interview with CNN,
Blatter said: “my position is that as long as the door line technology is
useful, we will use. If this technology can be fast and accurate, and the
operation is not too complicated, I think there will be a great opportunity to
be accepted by us. It is worth mentioning that, due to UEFA ex-president
Platini’s attitude is also to resist the door line technology, so Blatter also
showed the “Persuasion” attitude. “As long as the goal line
technology is really feasible, the management will agree, even the
conservatives. Mr. Platini has always been against the goal line technology in
the early time, because he worries about what will happen after the offside
technology and so on a lot of new things. But now we’re talking about the door
a result, many adherents of line technology saw the dawn of its formal
appearance on the court. However, with a long run and good behavior, goal line
technology has already used in many association soccer games and with a good
is no doubt about that goal line technology will have a comprehensive use in
sports especially in association football. With technology developing faster
and faster, this system it must have more upgrades and promotions. From a technical
angle, it will have more convenient, substantial and economical technology use
in this system which can make this system use comprehensive. On the other hand,
if goal line technology more and more use in association football it will avoid
high-profile incidents and misjudgments in
games. This is a good way that information technology uses to protect justice.
The purpose of the study
was to elicit the perceptions of soccer referees regarding the function of goal
line technology use in soccer. The results of the study suggest that while
referees are aware of goal line technology, they are not familiar with the use
and possess in depth knowledge of the phenomenon. Even though a lot of
criticisms voices to doubt this technology, this system is still running well
and also has a good future.
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