Global of global warming. Emissions from power plants, businesses,

Global warming is the general change in climatic conditions;
it is characterized with increased temperatures and unpredictable weather
patterns such as extremely hot summers. The major causes of global warming are
rapid deforestation, release of excessive greenhouse gases into the atmosphere (Bhatt 2). Greenhouse
gases include hydro fluorocarbons and gases from exhaust fuel (carbon monoxide,
methane, nitrogen oxides and carbon dioxide). Hydro fluorocarbons are derived
from perfumes, pesticides, herbicides and other aerosols.

Figure 1: Pie Chart showing the Major Contributors
to Global Warming (United States Environmental Protection Agency)

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Effects

The effects of global warming include droughts, floods,
melting of ice caps and increased sea levels. In Antarctica, the melting of ice
has resulted in the reduction of the Adelie penguin population by 33% in the
last twenty five years. In the Canadian Arctic the rapid increase in the amount
of rainfall reduced the Peary caribou population from 24,000 to 1,100 between
1961 and 1967.a team of UN scientists stated that developing countries have
twice as much a chance of suffering from the effects of global warming as
industrialized nation. US the fourth largest producer of carbon dioxide in the
world. The extremely high temperatures cause excessive evapotranspiration
leading to drying up of surface water bodies, drop in the water table and
desertification. Deserts worldwide are encroaching into arable land; this
phenomenon has been witnessed in South Africa, India, North Africa Mexico and
North America (Bhatt 3). Floods,
cyclones and hurricanes destroy coral reefs, estuaries and lagoons. Floods and
desertification are not favourable for the fertility of agricultural land thus
posing a danger to food security; it also enhances the spread of pathogens and
rapid growth of micro-organisms.

Figure 2: Graph illustrating the top ten global
emitters of greenhouse gases (Mengpin Ge)

 

 

 

Solutions

Reduced Energy Consumption

The energy consumption should be minimized to reduce the
rate of global warming. Emissions from power plants, businesses, homes and
industries contribute to at least two thirds of emissions that trap heat in
Illinois. The state relies heavily on coal consequently power plants account
for a quarter of the emissions. The industries should obtain at least 15% of
their electricity from clean and renewable sources (bioenergy, solar and wind)
by 2020. The funding on clean sources of energy should also be increased (David Timmons 41). Countries
should encourage investors who deal with renewable energy sources by reducing
their tax. Every building should be constructed and inhabited according to an
energy efficient building code.  The use
of a combined heat and power (CHP) system will reduce the amount of energy
because they provide both electricity and heat from a single fuel source. Energy
saving bulbs reduce the energy use as well as expenditure of a household. The
consumption of energy results in the production of greenhouse gases as a
by-product of the process. A decrease in the amount of energy used will
directly impact on the amount of greenhouse gases (GHGs) produced such as carbon
dioxide, methane and nitrogen oxides; GHGs contribute to global warming.

Energy Saving Vehicles

Vehicles should also be adjusted so that they emit a lower
amount of GHGs into the atmosphere. Every country should advocate for the use
of low carbon fuels in vehicles. In the USA, some states offer fuels with a
lower carbon content at lower prices to campaign for the idea. Examples of such
fuels are biodiesels and ethanol (Yanfei Li 388). Governments
should also introduce projects that limit the amount of fuel consumption. These
projects include carpooling, bicycle riding, parking management and transit
promotions. Some organizations have limited parking space in to encourage the
employees to use their cars less frequently or carpool as an anti-global
warming campaign. Vehicles that use a low amount of energy are common in many
countries such as Switzerland, USA and England. Electric vehicles do not emit
any gases and are considered a clean mode of transportation. Cable cars are
popular in Switzerland and are the preferred means of transport in hilly areas.
Diesel engines produce energy for vehicles as well as carbon monoxide, nitrogen
oxides, carbon dioxide and methane. These gases are the major contributors to
global warming. Therefore, limiting their production will eventually increases
the global climatic conditions.

Improved agricultural Practices

Some agricultural practices contribute to global warming.
Nitrogenous fertilizers produce nitrogen oxides. Nitrous oxides account for 64%
of harmful agricultural emissions; methane follows at 34%. The use of
nutrient-trading programs would be very effective in reducing the amount of
harmful emissions in farming activities. In the program, governments pay
farmers to lower the amount of nutrients they release into water sources such
as streams, rivers and lakes. The model benefits farmers in that it allows them
to treat their water to the best quality without spending too much money.
Farmers should also be encouraged to employ soil conservation measures in their
activities. Studies show that there are practices that improve the soil
quality; they include low input, the use of cover crops and no till. Cover crops
provide a shade cover the soil thus preventing excessive evaporation of water
from the ground (A. Adugna 3522). Farmers
should employ other soil conservation methods such as building gabion, strip
farming and terracing; these practices reduce soil erosion. Agroforestry is
another effective method of curbing global warming. Nitrous oxides and methane
contribute immensely to the increasing rate of global warming. Soil
conservation maintains its fertility therefore enables the soil to maintain its
fertility and prevent desertification. Agroforestry incorporates planting trees
alongside crops. Trees are windbreakers therefore preventing soil erosion; the
leaves in trees utilize excessive carbon dioxide in the atmosphere during
photosynthesis. The shade provided by trees reduces the rate of
evapotranspiration thus conserving moisture. The efforts to reduce moisture
loss and maintain soil fertility are part of the overall strategy to curb
global warming.

Government Legislations

Moreover, governments should set up legislations that will
reduce the amount of practices leading to global warming. The cap-and-trade
system should be adopted in every country; it sets limits on the maximum amount
of emissions a company or factory is allowed to emit and aids the firm in
ensuring that it meets its objectives. Countries should introduce clean energy
policies that include renewable electricity standards, increased funding for
deployment an studies on clean energy technologies and extending incentives on
energy tax (Scientists 2). Governments
should create laws that limit the amount of greenhouse gases that farmers
produce from biofuels and livestock wastes. Increasing the standard of fuel
that can be used by drivers is a good method of reducing the vehicle exhaust
emissions. People in the energy industry cannot risk getting imprisoned hence
they will abide by these regulations. These laws will reduce the amount of GHGs
produced and consequently control the rate global warming.

Benefits of the
Solutions

Reduced Emissions of Greenhouse Gases

Government legislation is meant to regulate companies that
release huge amounts of greenhouse gases. The greenhouse gases’ concentration
has been rising ever since the industrial period began. As such, global warming
can be attributed to the rising industrial activities. Implementing the above
solutions will prevent firms from exceeding a certain percentage of emissions;
hence, reduce the impacts.

Curbing the overreliance on fossil
fuels

Introducing the energy saving vehicles will reduce the
current trend of relying on fossil fuels. It is worth noting that combustion of
coal to produce energy among other natural resources are key contributors of global
warming through the emission of greenhouse gases. As such, the electrical
vehicles will be beneficial in curbing the same.

Creation of a safer environment

Avoiding the fossil fuels as well as changing the
agricultural practices will lead to a safer environment. The air quality is one
of the most devastating effect of gaseous emission that causes significant
deaths across the globe. Applying the stated solutions will help negate this
issue via the creation of a safer environment free from the unhealthy gaseous
emissions.

Conclusion

Global warming is a menace that has adverse effects. In the
recent years, the global temperatures have increased tremendously causing the
melting of glaciers and increasing se levels. Hurricanes, floods and
desertification are also common occurrences. Various ways have been developed
to solve this problem. They are the use of energy-saving vehicles, better farm
practices and government legislations that aim at reducing the rate of global
warming.