SANJAR KURYAZOV                                             141805453 2.      SADIQ BATURE SHEHU                                        120212001 3.      NKWADOCHI FAVORUR AMADI                        141701067 4.

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      TOSAN MEJEBI UKUORITSE                                151805003 5.      JEREMIAH PROMISE                                              131703002 6.      PHILIP EGBUAGU                                                  090212102 7.      JAMES OYEYEMI MAYAKI                                  131805002     Contents Introduction.

3 How CGI is Created. 5 Common CGI software. 6 Significance Of Computer Generated Imagery.

6 Significance of CGI in Real Estate: 7 Significance of CGI in Games. 7 Significance of CGI in Films. 7 CGI with AI. 8 CGI with Big Data Analytics. 8 Ethical Issues Related to Computer Generated Imagery. 8 Security Concerns With CGI.

9 Advances In CGI: 10 References. 11          IntroductionComputer-Generated Imagery (CGI) is the making of still or enlivened visual substance with imaging programming. CGI is utilized to deliver pictures for reasons including visual craftsmanship, promotion, anatomical display, compositional outline, building, network shows, computer game workmanship and film embellishments, and in addition increased reality (AR) and virtual reality (VR) applications.

CGI is proficient through different strategies. The utilization of calculations to create fractals, for instance, can deliver complex visual examples. Different techniques incorporate painting in a 2D pixel-based picture manager and making shapes to make pictures, as in a vector-based picture editor.

The name CGI is the French acronym for “Conseillers en gestion et informatique,” which means information systems and management consultants and it was founded by Serge Godin in June 1976 which was later joined by Andre Imbeau and together both men committed themselves to build a company based upon a shared dream.Due to Moore’s Law, the cost of processing has been going down, while the power has been expanding. The more reasonable cost of processing was a standout amongst the most significant parts of the Technological Revolution. The lower cost implies that it is presently feasible for anybody with a PC and times an opportunity to make his or her own particular music, composing, and computerized activities. The present 3D CGI activity is advancement from essential movement into a reproduced, exceptionally practical world. By consolidating material science with workmanship, CGI cuts up the world into the littlest sections conceivable. By making models of how those modest parts of this present reality move the outcome is a superbly practical world.CGI can likewise be produced using 3D illustrations, either with beam following or by rasterized 3D designs.

Beam following mimics the way light follows up on surfaces on the level of photons, reproduced by shade programming schedules. Beam following can utilize complex strategies to assemble shapes, for example, non-uniform b-spline. The chief objective of CGI is for visual effects in movies, TV shows, commercials, video games and such.

The future of CGI is to get to the point where we can make a computerized adaptation of a performer that is not very distinct from the genuine individual. There are innovations, advancements and progression in this field that could make real actors obsolete in some ways, even in their computerized selves. The CGI would be able to be autonomous and react to their environment. Structural rendering will help individuals – in the not so distant future to have the capability to pick the alternate reality in which they want to live in.In all actuality, we are rapidly heading into a domain in which no one will have the capacity to recognize reality caught with a camera from engineered reality made at home with a PC. What’s more, when anybody can make media that can not in any way, shape or form is recognized as manufactured. Envision the utilization of manufactured recordings for propagandas or legislative issues. Furthermore, think on a littler scale what will occur in court if scientific specialists can’t state if something is genuine or not? Certainly, indiscernible watermarks can keep some of this misuse, however they aren’t solid yet.

The greater part of this could prompt a world in which reality can misplace its significance entirely.With the increase of VR, AI, and augmented reality in a couple of decades, the physical world we consider reality will break up into numerous produced universes with a billion measurements, undefined from reality. All these will be delved into in their entirety in this presentation. Before CGI turned out to be to a great degree well known, films were commanded fundamentally by live activity impacts. Despite the fact that there were types of movement before CGI’s ascent to control, for example, Stop Motion Animation, a lion’s share of movie producers that required embellishments done made their own belongings.

 Before CGI’s most noteworthy achievement in 1995, there were many movies that spearheaded the utilization of CGI, including Star Wars and Jurassic Park. CGI was not yet the most widely recognized practice, but rather these movies started to upset the utilization of embellishments. Other enhancements apparatuses were utilized around the season of Star Wars in situations where CGI was not utilized, for example, Claymation, which based itself around the utilization of Stop Motion Animation. Look at the T-Rex from Jurassic Park – still reasonable (and unnerving) today.  In 1995, Pixar discharged their first full length enlivened film, Toy Story, which was the primary full length film to be made just utilizing CGI with 3D movement. This film is regularly credited for beginning the overwhelming utilization of CGI in Hollywood that we find in motion pictures today.

This makes sense as it was additionally around the time that PC innovation turned out to be further developed, having the capacity to have applications and projects required for this movement to be finished.How CGI is Created            CGI is created through different methods. The first one has to do with fractal. Fractals are generated from mathematical algorithm.

It is use to generate images that are similar to the original image in a certain scale. Fig 1. Fractal Landscape. Digital Image from (MarkJaybee Fractals, June 2014).Another method has to do with generating realistic images from 2D painting or photos. 3D graphics can be used to generate CGI.

This method includes simulating the effect of light on a surface and design specifications. Fig 2. Smurf 2D/CGI Digital Image Image from (Max, Jan.

2011),Common CGI software1.      Blender2.      Pov Ray3.

      DAZ 3D4.      Genesis 3D Editor5.      ZModeler6.      GLC PlayerSignificance of Computer Generated ImagerySince 1995, after the first fully computer generated feature film, Pixar’s Toy story, technology has grown in ways that we couldn’t have imagined and with this rapid increase in technological advancements, the industries that use animations have not been left out. The driving force behind the rapid growth of technology in these industries has been the ability for technologists to create more realistic, believable animations.

Digital animation or computer generated imagery has allowed many technologists in various industries to explore their imaginations and they have been more successful than in the past. CGI is significant / important for the actualization of various realistic imageries in different aspects of our lives.Significance of CGI in Real Estate:CGI in real estate is the application of computer graphics to generate images (imaginations of clients or technologists) of a property that will eventually be presented to potential clients before the completion of said properties. These images will show interior architecture, design details, lighting, atmosphere and even the property within the environment, the gardens, garage, pool, floor plans, etc.CGI in real estate helps in bringing visualized technical concepts to reality in ways that are almost impossible without computer graphics, providing clients with the opportunity to visualize living in that particular home. It helps in the creation of high quality photo-realistic illustrations, giving a professional, sharp and artistic edge to any real estate commercial presentation.

CGI in real estate is time efficient and believable and gives clients the possibility to consider details such as dimensions and interior design options way before the completion of the project.Significance of CGI in GamesComputer graphics have also played a significant role in the production of video games. While computer graphic games started as primitive dots and lines across mobile and computer screens, in the past decades, they have evolved into realistic compelling virtual worlds with characters’ humans can relate to. Games such as “Grand Theft Auto,” “God of War” and “PES”, “SIMS” etc., had earned record-breaking sales for attracted players in impossibly detailed virtual lives.Significance of CGI in FilmsDigital animation in movies has allowed filmmakers and animators to tell stories in an entirely different way from what it used to be in the past. CGI has proved its importance in the film industry through the creation of visual stunts that ordinarily, will be life threatening for actors to perform. CGI in the movie industry has become a more contained way of adding effects than “real” live action allowed in the past for a better and more realistic effect.

  CGI with AI            Artificial Intelligence is the creating of human intelligence into machines to create intelligent machines through machine learning. AI and CGI can allow anyone to create realistic photos, audio and videos. CGI technology is trained based on real pictures and with AI to generate new images based on the real pictures.            Using lip synching, audio can now be inserted and blended into existing videos.

With AI, the machine can watch a video and compare it with the audio to produce mouth shapes that suit the pronunciation of a word.CGI with Big Data Analytics            Big data is structured and unstructured data generated from using digital devices. With big data analytics, we can study data to uncover patterns and gain insights. How does this correlate with CGI? With the insight gained from big data analytics, CGI can be used to create models based on that insight.For instance, in a case of a missing child from 20 years ago. CGI can be used to predict the current look of that child. However, with big data analytic insight they can correlate the effect of any environment to see how it will affect the person physical features.Ethical Issues Related to Computer Generated ImageryEthics has to do deal with the right and wrong way to do or use things.

Also, it answers the question of humanity like doing good or evil. Acknowledging the importance of computing technology and its effect on the society in terms of social, legal and other ethical issues. Relating these subjects to CGI can raise ethical concerns which should be paid attention to CGI has allowed users to create fantastic and perfective images such as animations, motions, and unreachable movie scenes. However, this application is not limited to just objects: it is currently applied to the creation of human imagery. The most ethical issue that arises in relation to that of CGI is deception. CGI has an effect on the way society sees things. The fact that CGI can be used to create non-existent images unknown to the viewer raises a big concern. It uses also includes removal of unwanted traits (thereby perfection) in graphics which the viewers are not aware of.

Using advertisement, CGI can be used to create a misleading claim about a product in terms of safety, effect and quality. It can create a sense of deception to make the viewer think that they will look like the model after using the product. Especially in a case where you the viewer is troubled. Other ethical issues have to do with the recreation of diseased people. Currently, in the movie industry, CGI is used in the recreation of dead actors and actresses. As this technology continues to develop, it will become harder to distinguish the fake from the real thereby leading to an argument on personality right.

Companies can now buy personalities in form of their intellectual property and use it to their will. Yes, it is understandable to use CGI model to complete a project in case of a mishap relating to the artist. However, there should be a limit to how and where this CGI created personalities can be used. For example, Rogue One, a spin-off of the Star War series, which used CGI to recreate the deceased actor Peter Cushing’s character.What about human displacement and moral reasoning? CGI has made it easier to replace humans with images that are more efficient and precise than people.

This has a negative effect on the global economy in terms of employment. In addition, most CGI models can oppose natural laws like laws of physics. For example, video games in terms of skills and acceleration, this may alter people’s sense of reasoning.  Studies have shown that violence in video games has an effect on people.  In my opinion, there should be laws regarding how CGI should be used. These laws should take into consideration the producer perspective and humans thereby benefitting both producers and the society as a whole. Companies should be responsible for upholding these policies and ethical standards.

 Security Concerns with CGISecurity part of Computer Generated Imagery contains safety and security of human’s life in cinematography. Cinematography is related to movie making, it is the art of motion picture photography in relation to lighting, camera angle and color density. How does this relate to security?Actors are risking their life during the action movies to create effective scenes.  There are people who died to perform specific movements in movies in the past.  New technologies can replace such a danger work for actual actor. Software applications to create effects in movies which called Computer Generated Imagery designed to increase effectiveness and decrease risk for actors. However, the technology of motion capture has allowed for animators to mimic the movements of the human body for a decade or so now, but we still need actors to get the movement just right.

Rather than heralding actors’ obsolescence, new technology such as motion capture has been the catalyst for significantly improving the realism in both human and animal animations.  It all requires an actor to build the expression and movement libraries.  If we want to “replace” actors then what will likely be needed is software that knows how a human will move (and smoothly), can capture the minute entails of the face (again, smoothly). And we’re asking the software to do all that without a stocked library of human movements.            Additionally, CGI can be used to create images of people that do not exist. Take for example, a Facebook profile that promotes violence or is related to other crimes. ?t will be hard for law enforcement agencies to first of all know the profile pictures are computer generated due to realism and thereby making it difficult to identify the real person behind that profile.

Hostile government can use this technology to create false media and propaganda against their enemies.               People believe in what they see and hear. With this technology, it will become easy to spoof human voice. Adobe currently has a project on this called Vocal which can be used to copy human voice. Voice is one of the current trend of authentication method. If this tool is utilized by dangerous people, they can use it to gain unauthorized access, plant fake evidences and blackmail people.             Conclusively, CGI can be used to create a Photoshop of anything ranging from images, voices, videos thereby leading to sophisticated potential crimes and challenging security issues.

    Advancements in CGIMost CGI in movies – natural landscapes, weather phenomena, buildings, and all kinds of objects is becoming indistinguishable from reality. CGI humans, however, still elicit that uncanny feeling, just like real androids.  They looked extremely realistic, but they still do not feel like real people. We believe the future of CGI may present a big problem as we are quickly heading into an era in which nobody will be able to distinguish reality captured with a camera from synthetic reality. When anyone can create media that cannot be possibly identified as synthetic, our current problems with fake media will seem insignificantly comparable. For example, people can use fabricated videos for propaganda in wars or politics leading to a world where reality can lose its value completely. With the rise of artificial intelligence, augmented reality, and virtual reality.

In a few decades the physical world we consider reality will dissolve into many computer-generated worlds whereby using Machine-to-brain interfaces to allow us sink or soar into these worlds. We will be able to make our own world and our reality will become whatever we want it to be. In regards to medical imaging, CGI will replace x-ray, CT scan, MRI and ultrasound making diagnosis easier and faster by showing an interactive CGI of your inner body just like it is.            Of course, AI can transform real pictures into new animation. However, with new inventions, computers can learn how to create their own personality/ images that are not real.

With the use of Generative Adversarial Network(GAN), computers can generate a more realistic-fake image from a training set. GAN is an advancement in AI. It is a part of neural network that is used in unsupervised machine learning to copy an existing data. GAN uses deep learning.

It consists of two Artificial Neural Networks. Artificial Neural Networks are biologically inspired simulations of neurons of the human brain on the computer to perform certain specific tasks through mathematical expressions. Artificial Neural Networks receives input from the external environment in form of images depending on the objective of the models, this is multiplied by its corresponding weights.

    Input Media (sound, images) Generator Discriminator Compares input and output Output Fake Images/Sound Provides Feedback (does it look real or fake)                             Fig 3. Data flow of GAN As the system continues to learn, the results produced become more and more realistic. The AI keeps updating itself until it can produce a perfect result. An ongoing development of this system is being implemented by NVidia corporation. Fig 4. Alec Radford, Luke Metz, and Soumith Chintala.

Unsupervised representation learning with deep convolutional generative adversarial networks. arXivpreprint arXiv:1511.06434, 2015.AI and machine learning both function using probability and needs big data in other to produce a more accurate results. Though both words are being use interchangeable, they are representing different concepts. Fig 5.

Logical Representation of AI, ML and DL.The main differences between AI and ML are stated in the table below; Artificial Intelligence Machine Learning A General Concept of Intelligence A sub category of AI Developed primarily to mimic human response and behaviors Developed primarily to find patterns Uses  symbolic processing and formal logic Uses a statistical, probabilistic and evolutionary approach. Do not provide insight Can provide insights It is a general implementation. Specifically designed to solve a particular problem that is, it is more focused.               References·         MarkJaybee Fractals (June 2014), Fractal landscape Digital image retrieved from

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