For in the State-Centred concepts like military, territory and

For
millennia, the movement of people across borders has been an
influential factor in the domestic as well as international affairs.
‘The movement of a person or a group of persons across an
international border is defined as International Migration’.1
‘Migration is often associated with significant global events-
revolutions, wars, and the rise and fall of empires; it is associated
with significant changes- economic expansion, nation-building, and
political transformations, and it is also associated with significant
problems- conflict, persecution, and dispossession’.2
Migration has been a constant feature of history and it matters now,
more than ever, as the number of international migrants is increasing
at a faster rate and almost every country is affected either directly
or indirectly.
Throughout
history, migration is more of an opportunity, as it has supported the
world economy and enriched many cultures and civilisations.
International migration continues to play an important role in
national, regional and global affairs, not just in terms of economy
but in social and cultural spheres. International migration also
presents some important challenges as it has been regarded by some as
a threat to national sovereignty and human security. There is also
the problem of growing number of ‘Irregular Migrants’ which has
serious impacts on the security of the people and of the State. On
the other hand, migrants themselves are exposed to various problems-
some migrants are exploited; their human rights are abused; and there
are difficulties in integrating with the destination countries. These
are legitimate concerns which should not be underestimated.

This
necessitates the analysis of International migration in ‘human
security perspective’. Human security is a concept that emerged as
a post-cold war discourse out of United Nations Development Programme
(UNDP) and later in the Commission on Human Security (CHS) Report of
2003. Human security approach presents a new shift from looking at
security in the State-Centred concepts like military, territory and
national security to the security of the individuals, their
protection and empowerment. Human security places individual as the
‘centre of analysis’.
The
Commission on Human Security (CHS) defines human security as:
“…to
protect the vital core of all human lives in ways that enhance human
freedoms and human fulfilment. Human security means protecting
fundamental freedoms – freedoms that are the essence of life. It
means protecting people from critical (severe) and pervasive
(widespread) threats and situations. It means using processes that
build on people’s strengths and aspirations. It means creating
political, social, environmental, economic, military and cultural
systems that together give people the building blocks of survival,
livelihood and dignity.”
Human
security approach deals with the economic, food, health,
environmental, personal, community and political security. Human
security is also focussed on multidimensional and complex threats and
on insecurities that challenge the survival, livelihood and dignity
of the people. Generally, the debate on migration-security nexus
tends to focus on the aspects that relate to State security but the
application of ‘human security approach’ to the issue of
international migration is inevitable, as migration involves human
lives, human rights and their security. This paper attempts to
analyse the issue of international migration, the concept of human
security and the nexus between these two.

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SIGNIFICANCE:
International
migration is a global phenomenon that is growing in scope, complexity
and impact. The UN reports that the number of international migrants
worldwide reached 232 million in 2013, up from 175 million in 2000
and 154 million in 1990. 3The
visible rise in global mobility, the growing complexity of migratory
patterns and its impact on countries, migrants, families and
communities have all contributed to international migration becoming
a priority for the international community. Since migration involves
human lives and their security, it is inevitable to analyse the issue
in the ‘human security perspective’. The literature on
‘International migration-security nexus’ generally focus on the
State security. This paper attempts to analyse the issue of
International migration as a human security issue.

OBJECTIVES:
The
main objectives of this study are:
To
understand the issue of international migration, its dimensions and
recent trends
To
acquire knowledge on the factors that stimulate international
migration
To
study the evolution and development of the concept of human security
and its application on international migration
To
acquire knowledge on the existing migration management policies and
their scope
To
analyse how international migration and the policies on migration
management affects human security at individual, national and
international level

HYPOTHESIS:
International
migration has emerged as a serious human security issue at the
individual, national and international levels.
There
should be a synergy between national and international migration
policies in order to be effective and to reach the goal of human
security.

1
“Key Migration Terms” International Organization for Migration
(IOM).
< https://www.iom.int/key-migration-terms#Migration>

2
Koser, Khalid. “International Migration: A Very Short
Introduction”. Oxford University Press. 2007.

3
United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Population
Division, 2013. The number of international migrants worldwide
reaches 232 million, Population Facts No. 2013/2. < http://esa.un.org/ unmigration/documents/The_number_of_international_migrants.pdf >