FAO taking in and how much energy it will

FAO
Summaries

Kinley
Powell

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Nutr 2160

11/15/17

1.1. Food composition includes nutrients (something that
provides essential energy), non-nutrients, and energy-input. Nutrients can be
broken down into two types, macro- and micro- nutrients. Macronutrients
includes water, fibre, fats, proteins, and carbs, but micronutrients are the
vitamins and minerals we need in life. Usually these are described with
FCT/FCDB (food composition tables/food composition databases). Food composition
tables or databases can also be held at the national or regional level, and then
eventually roll over as food labels. Within these, the food composition is
described by nutrient values – a combination of genetics, food quality, the way
the food was made, a description of the food (for example: raw tuna or grilled
chicken), and more. These vary by culture and location, but food composition is
important because we know what we are putting in our body. Without food
composition, we would not know what we consume and how it affects the
population. To have a better understanding of what we eat, we can see a
registered dietitian, or nutritionist. Both have went through schooling to
understand food composition to better explain it to their clients/normal
people. Professionals can also let us know when we are not eating the right
foods and use food composition in the wrong way, sometimes by using our own
knowledge, the wrong kind of professionals, the internet, and more. We tend to
believe the wrong advice which advertise the worst foods possible.
Professionals can correct our food composition in order to fight against
obesity, malnutrition, micronutrition, and non-communicable diseases, such as
cancer or cardiac-related). People all across the world are finding ways to
better food composition to decrease food biodiversity, and to fight against
added sugar, genetically modified organisms, food toxins, trans fatty acid, and
processed foods through epidemiological research. This kind of research can
help link food and disease. The quality of data can be hard to determine,
especially for vitamins and minerals, because of the big missing gap in
analytical data. Another issue with determining whole quality data is that each
food item is reflected upon based on the average values of that food item,
which can turn out to not be accurate. Variety of food, location of food, the
way food is packaged and processed, as well as how old the food is are all
apart of the limitation of food composition. Without food composition, the
world cannot determine how much food people should be taking in and how much energy
it will give us. The needs for food are always a higher demand than supply,
considering that most countries around the globe lack enough food. Throughout
the Food Composition Course, we will also take a deeper look into how food is
described (unit 2), correct data importance (unit 3), and quality of data and
how to combine it all (units 4 and 5). If one is going into dietetics, this FAO
course is very important to take in regards to understanding the requirement of
food composition and the benefits from it.

1.2 There are a few places where food composition can be
found: in scientific literature, on food labels, and in food  composition tables or food composition
databases. Food composition tables are books, either electronically (as of 2000
when used as PDF or other file types) or on paper, national or regional, which
are made public and describe the nutrient composition of food. Before creating
one, there are several things that need to be completed. This includes: the
creation of an ideal group, the foods that will be used, their nutrients,
prioritization, a rough draft of the plan, a budget, and a request for the
FCT/FCDB to be authorized. Then, there should be a certain criteria for the
flow of the FCT/FCDB. The food composition table and food composition database
will change through supply and demand, market shares, more intense knowledge,
and due to better or new foods. There are different parts of a food composition
table, including documentation, annexes, tables, and an index. In comparison,
there are food composition databases, which can only be electronic and are
multi-dimensional.  They contain certain
types of files such as calculations, nutrient description, nutrient data,
source codes, food description, and food groups. These databases can be expensive
when used as a software package, but are updated every couple of years. Both
the food composition table and the food composition database are easy to access
and with today’s technology can be used worldwide. Both the table and database
can carry a small amount to a very large amount of foods within their
composition. There is a term called prioritization needs, which basically
prioritizes which foods components get to be within the table or databases. Not
all foods can be placed in the FCT/FCDB because there are certain limitations.
These limitations include human, time, and financial. The authors, called
compilers, work with the economists, nutritionists, dentists, and other related
positions to figure out what foods should be in the FCT/FCDB. Tables and
databases are important for these different positions/jobs, and there are over
a hundred food composition tables and databases that are available. Although
most are to old, they are all unique and have lots of diversity. One reason for
this is because different countries and regions have their own food composition
database and food composition table. Certain factors for having their own table
and database includes climate, soil, variety, food policy, and even culture.
There can be up to four classifications for food compositions. The first one is
a data source, which is literature containing the analytical data. The second
is archival database, containing the original data. Reference database which
holds the completed data, and lastly, user database containing a reference
database. Before a person uses the data and food composition information, they
should make sure it is reliable and documented properly. Sometimes information
of the data can be misplaced or wrongly informed. When this happens, there can
be consequences. One example given was that if the foods estimations are off,
even a little bit, the foods in the FCT/FCDB may have to be altered for the
region or nation when not needed.

2.1 Many different factors make up the human diet. It is the
way we survive, have a variety and continue to expand our palates. The way we
prepare foods through cooking, what foods we use when eating, how we cook the
foods, and if they are processed all play an important role in our nutrition.
All foods (which can also mean drinks, but not drugs) come from either an
animal or a plant. Food is made up of macronutrients and micronutrients. The
main ones we know include carbs, fats, and protein. The food goes into our body
and is used as energy for us to do everyday activities. In order to know what
we are eating, the foods must be described as accurate as possible because this
is how we communicate with others the food composition. All foods have nutrient
profiles, containing the nutrients. Nutrient profiles can have multiple food
descriptions. This depends on animal source, processing type, fat content, and
fortification. Mostly raw foods are included in food composition tables or
databases, but also includes all other types of foods. Foods that are used the
most and in large amounts are called core foods. These foods must not be taken
lightly when creating them in a food composition table or food composition
database. Other foods are eaten in smaller amounts, usually by different types
of consumers like vegans. When naming foods, there are four things that must be
done: the name, a description, a code, and its food group. This should be done
as a group so that the data is correct. This only helps to recognize and
identify foods, but this can be confusing at times because there are language
barriers, or recipes/ingredient differences, and classification of names. It is
also requested to put certain foods that are alike close together in food
composition tables or food composition databases. They must also be in
alphabetical order, and within food groups. This way searching for foods is
simple and easy. When describing foods, descriptive words should be used like
fat, frozen, lean, grilled, seared, certain vitamins, the colors, and more. The
only reasons food is not included in a food composition table or database is
because the food is not in the country/consumed, it’s nutrition is irrelevant,
there is no funding, it has a bad quality of the data, missing information or
more. Judgement of food is very important when determining food consumption
because some countries may not have a FCT/FCDB. When there is good judgement,
the demand for it increases thus increasing the import and export (the supply
from the food’s origin) of food in countries. Nomenclature is overall important
because everyday, normal people can understand the description and names when
walking through grocery stores finding food to provide for themselves and their
families. Many people do not know what kind of foods they should buy, but
because of the nomenclature they are able to learn food groups and the way they
should be prepared.

3.1 Food components (which requires many details) are a
series of terms that make up the food composition. One goal of a food
composition table or food composition database includes retaining all of the
nutrients and biochemicals. Nutrients provides energy so that an organism can
survive. We use the word component when describing all things that make up food
including, but not limited to, energy, toxic chemicals, proximates (another
term for macronutrients), macronutrient fractions (the amino acids, fatty
acids, and sugars), nutrients, anti nutrients (oxalic acid), micronutrients
(vitamins), and bioactive compounds (in plants). All of these play a role in
food safety, the promise of not getting sick from the consumption of food.
Determining if a food is safe is by making sure there are no harsh chemicals,
metals, or drugs within the substance. Some foods may seem slightly different
when comparing food composition table or food composition databases because
some factors are included, and others are not. The term for a difference in
nutrient values is artificial difference. When going through these factors, we
learn what is important and what is unimportant when including the food
components in our food composition tables. The three most important components
include the name, the values in units, and the selection. The names can be used
the same or in different ways varying on the location of the food composition
table. This can ultimately hurt the food composition table because the
information may get mixed up if two foods have the same name (like dessert),
but different ingredients and nutrients. An unambiguous food with a
description, for example the lightly seared 
ahi tuna, has four things that make it up: chemical entities,
calculations, different methods, and the expression of data through hydrous
(the inclusion of water in hydrolysis) or anhydrous (the exclusion of water in
hydrolysis) form.  When looking at food
components using the metric system, they must contain a unit and denominator.
The unit stands for the g, mg, ug, etc., while the denominator reflects how
much that unit is out of, along with a description. In general, the name is not
as important as the definition along with the nutrient and chemical substance
values. Some components cannot be recorded in food composition table or food
composition database through some factors. This includes using the RDI. When
these components are checked out, they can then be reliable. Foods can be
recorded in one of three categories: food composition table or database, an
annexe of a food composition table or database, or in special databases. Within
FCT/FCDB, you will find macronutrients, micronutrients, and an edible portion.
For annexes, they hold macronutrient fractions, bioactive compounds, anti
nutrients, and other components. And for special databases, it focuses more on
food safety. Water is not included in food composition tables or databases.
Chemical contaminants are iffy on whether or not to be included. One of the
main reasons we do not include them is because it cost lots of money for the
fancy equipment.

4.1 Data quality is important when looking between accuracy
and valueless. Based on the given timeline, this is first noticed in 1980 when
Exler found the analytical work. Then by 2009, the EuroFIR was an index worth
reading. Different factors affect the quality of the data. When judging data,
the data must be clear and concise in order to restate the purpose. Nutrient
values can have high quality or low quality depending on the country. Some
quality is represented accurately while other data is not based on natural
factors and artificial factors. These can be described through a description of
the food, an analysis of the component, and sampling. When sampling, our goal
is to gather samples of food, which can ultimately be converted into analytical
data and determine the average amount of food supply needed. The values of the
food samples will be closer to precision over accuracy since accuracy describes
the total foods in the country. Precision means you are close in results, but
not close to the true value. Accuracy means you are close in results and to the
true value (I think of it like a dart board). The larger the sample (used
nationally or regionally or both), the greater the quality will be because
there will be less bias. When assessing this data, there are five categories.
This includes the sampling, how many samples, sampling handling, analytical
method and control. This also means a closer and truer representation of  the nutrient values. When sampling across
countries, the packaging, storage, and transportation of the food must be
handled correctly. One example that was used was that if a food sample that needed
to be in the dark, then it had to be packaged and transported in the dark so
that it would not alter the composition of the food. An analytical food sample
can consist of 10-12 foods; whereas the collection may need three analytical
food samples in order to enhance the results and quality. This is done in
duplicates to find analytical variation. As the values come closer together,
the quality is enhanced, but if the values separate apart it can cause problems
within the data. For example, 1 and 2 are close together, but 1 and 16 are
further apart. Analytical data is better. For the users and compilers,
documentation of the the data reflects the quality. A higher number in
documentation results in a higher quality of the data versus a low amount of documentation
creates a low quality of data. Documentation can be created at one of two ways:
the food level or the value level. Both are very different things. The food
level is original documentation, but the value level is more complex and more
recommended. A data quality assessment system is used when determining
evaluation of data quality through a systematic approach and the results should
leave little interpretation. Once the sampling is completed, then it is time
for a constructive criticism result. If the data in the FCT/FCDB, then it
should be rejected.