Operations Management is present in many businesss every bit good as those of fabrication and service industries. I believe it to be present in day-to-day responsibilities of any individual although they may ne’er detect. With this in head I see operations direction as a accomplishment anyone has with an purpose of accomplishing an result of something they are working towards in a logical procedure with idea of consciousness of a system construction.
Operations direction has been around for some clip yet it was Christopher Polhelm ( Sweden ) foremost recognised a accomplishment and recorded that ‘Nothing additions demand so much as low monetary values. Therefore there is a great demand of machines and contraptions which will decrease the sum or strength of heavy work ‘ ( Extract from text book Operations Management – supplied by DMU for unfastened larning please see bibliography ) this was around 1700.
There are instances in many history books and narratives passed down that operations direction was present before this yet non identified as operations direction. From 1700 concern development has grew significantly and seems to hold been a noteworthy point of operations direction to present twenty-four hours. Operation direction is depending upon five public presentation aims i.e.A Quality, Flexibility, Cost, Speed and dependableness.
Quality: Quality means making things right. An operation needs to be immaculate and in order, have appropriate and attractive trappingss and do certain that the staffs are friendly and helpful. Quality reduces costs and increases dependableness.
Flexibility: The Flexibility facilitate to any alterations. Different merchandises and services need to be available, for illustration the gap times need to be varied as the chief clients ( pupils ) have changing timetables. A
Cost: The rank monetary values need to be a suited monetary value to ease pupils and people with different fiscal state of affairss. The cost of engaging employment demands to be considered every bit good as the cost of the equipment. The lower the cost of bring forthing their services, the lower the cost to the client will be. This is a really attractive property, particularly to pupils.
Speed: The velocity of the internal procedures can cut down stock lists and cut down hazards.
Dependability: The staffs want to be able to make things in clip for the clients to have their services. Bing dependable causes the clients to go more loyal over clip. Dependability can salvage clip, salvage money and give support throughout the operation, internally and externally.
In this assignment I try to concentrate on above all aims and how fabrication procedure is traveling? How much clip taking each Department for their work? Why occur hold for bringing to Customer? What ‘s function of Human Resources in maintain Quality, Cost and Time? Why storage is create scarceness of infinite? Why quality is traveling down? Product value and Customer satisfaction Etc. Operation direction happen out best solution before arise job. Operation Management is helpful for Decision devising,
Developing a procedure scheme, pull offing effectual undertaking, procedure analysing, Demand Forecasting, managing Quality, be aftering Capacity, pull offing Inventories etc. In this assignment I researched on Rama Newsprint & A ; Papers Ltd, India, which is largest private paper Production Company. It is running by more than 2000 work force. This is fabricating Cream Wove, Super printing, base paper for surfacing, map litho ; SS map litho, Copier paper and newspaper etc. It has $ 50 million equity or spread over in 400 estates land. RNPL has besides ain 23 mw Power workss. This company is immense in paper industry sector and I am certain it will be increase my cognition in Operation direction and its systems.
Manufacturing Procedure of Newsprint & A ; Paper:
The paper industry is fundamentally based on wood and wood based mush. But Rama Newsprint is produce paper by Recycling procedure. This program is zero wastage procedure programs. Wastepaper is a cardinal input in the production of newspaper, boxing paper and poster boards. Production of specialty paper involves the usage of different assortments of mush, which lend particular quality to the paper. Here below illustrate whole fabrication procedure of paper.
R & A ; D and QC Department:
This section drama of import function in fabricating procedure. R & A ; D section is continuously taking sample from Raw stuff, Deinking and Paper machine for look intoing quality of ongoing procedure and happen out anything incorrect in the procedure. As per operation direction quality is really of import issue and this is handled by R & A ; D and QC section.
Natural MATERIALS DEPARTMENT
R & A ; D AND QC
PAPER MACHINE DEPARTMENT
PRODUCT WEAR HOUSE
( Fabrication PROCES OF PAPER )
Natural MATERIALS DEPARTMENT
PRODUST WEAR HOUSE
– FOR Fabrication PROCESS –
( Technical SUPPORT TO ALL DEPARTMENT )
Natural stuffs Department:
Paper fabrication is start from Raw stuffs section. This section is utilizing Virgin Pulp, Local/Imported old newspaper ( ONP ) , News & A ; Pams, Mixed office waste, Old Telephone Directory, Old magazine class ( OMG ) for natural stuffs. But these all stuffs are available in wastage paper. This section is screening fiber, plastic, Fe, dust etc from west paper. Sorting is of import portion of procedure. If sorting is non good, quality of paper will be bad. This is really sensitive section and root of the procedure. This section retain maximal labor for screening work. After screening procedure this wastage paper send to Deinking section and finish their work.
Most paper is made by a mechanical or chemical procedure.
( Ref C: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.madehow.com/images/hpm_0000_0006_0_img0128.jpg )
After completion of Raw stuffs screening procedure, Deinking section is ready to get down following procedure. In this section waste documents have been mixes with H2O and wash by Chemical. This section ‘s nucleus work is taking Ink from paper and converts in to Pulp by blending Sodium hydrated oxide and Na sulfide. The french friess near into mush in the declaration. Next the mush is sent through filters.A BleachA may be added at this phase, or colorings. The mush is sent to the paper works. That ‘s for this section called De-Inking. In this phase besides mix some chemical for create brightness in paper and which is supplying by CAPP section. This completed Pulp has been send to paper Machine Department and finished their work.
Paper Machine Department:
The mush is following put through a whipping and squashing class called, decently plenty, gluing. Inside a big container, the mush is subjected to the green goods of machine beaters. At this point, assorted packing stuffs can be auxiliary such as chalks, clays, or chemicals such as Ti oxide. These additives will command the obtuseness and other qualities of the concluding merchandise. Sizing ‘s are besides added at this point. Sizing affects the manner the paper will respond with assorted inks.
( Ref C: hypertext transfer protocol: //www.madehow.com/images/hpm_0000_0006_0_img0128.jpg )
In instruct to finally go around the mush into paper, the mush is fed or pumped into colossal, automated machines. One ordinary class is called the Fourdrinier instrument. Pulp is fed into the Fourdrinier machine on a affecting belt of bright mesh choice. The mush is squeezed through a series of rollers, while suction scheme under the belt drains icky H2O. If the paper is to obtain a water-mark, a device called a dude moves across the sheet of mush and presses a design into it.
The paper so moves on top of the imperativeness portion of the machine, where it is pushed between rollers of wool felt. The paper so passes over a series of steam-heated cylinders to eliminate the left over H2O. A big machine may hold from 45 to 65 aeration cylinders.
– Coating House Department:
Finally, the dried paper is wounding onto big reels, where it will be extra processed depending on its last usage. Paper is circular and packed in farther by go throughing through metal rollers called calendars. A peculiar coating, whether supple and waterless or solid and calendered, can be imparted by the calendars.
The paper may be farther ended by go throughing through a container of sizing stuff. It may besides obtain a covering, which is either brushed on or rolled on. Covering ads chemicals or pigments to the paper ‘s outside, supplementing the size and fillers from old in the class. All right clay is frequently used as a covering. The paper may after that be supercalendered, that is, run from first to last highly satiny calendar rollers, for a shutting clip. Then the paper is cut to the wanted size.
Merchandise Wear House Department:
This is the concluding phase of Paper procedure. This phase PWH section is packing cutter paper and direct to storage or client. This section is storage paper size wise on different topographic point. Whenever requirement arise easy to happen out and direct to client.
Product life rhythm of RNPL:
When offering documents merchandise to client is that they have a assortment. They have an tremendous figure of a ways of disbursals their money and infinites to pass it. Therefore, Rama newspaper & A ; paper ‘s topographic points considerable accents on developing a new paper merchandise which client ‘s privation. Market research establishes precisely what this is.
However client ‘s demands change overtime. What is stylish and attention-getting today may be extra tomorrow. Marketing invariably proctors client ‘s first pick. In order to piece these alterations, RNPL has tried to establish new merchandise with alteration in old merchandise. The type of selling undertaken and the sum invested will be dissimilar, depending on the stage a merchandise has reached. For illustration, the Begin on of a new merchandise will classically affect telecasting and other advertisement support.
At several clip a company will hold a assortment of assets, a portion portfolio integrated portions in a scope of different companies of merchandise each in a diverse stage of life rhythm. Some of RNPL ‘s option is traveling changeless at the growing phase. Paper is a day-to-day usage merchandise but non much net income devising industry. In Indian market more than 800 paper industries are running in paper sector. So competition is on high degree and besides tough. That ‘s ground is for paper industries are non make to adulthood degree of merchandise life rhythm.
The merchandise life rhythm
Procedure Flow Chart:
A procedure chart is a set method of documenting all the activities performed by a individual or group at a workplace, with a client, or working with certain stuffs. It analyzes a procedure utilizing a tabular array, and provides information about each measure in the procedure. It is used to bore down to the occupation degree for an single individual, a squad or a focussed nested procedure. In this procedure five classs.
Procedure Flow Chart Symbols:
An activity straight lending to merchandise or services
Traveling the merchandise or services from one location to another
Analyzing the merchandise or services for completeness, abnormalities or quality
Procedure flow chart with easy to place spread between two procedure and this is giving thought to direction for bring forthing thought for decide it. On below chart easy to place selling section send order to PWH section on right clip. But deficiency of efficiency of PWH section, they are non seting in to procedure and do a hold. Besides PWH section is looking storage section. But there carelessness on work create panic of topographic point. Here paper machine section have good efficiency in malice of they can non work due to scarceness of infinite. So whole operations in PWH section is doing hold in procedure.
Quality is of import portion in Paper Industry. If industry ignore to this construct, They will be loose their client and lose their image in market. Rama Newsprint & A ; documents Ltd is besides believe in this construct and Quality circle implemented in administration. RNPL established section wise Quality circle commission and they meet to one clip in a hebdomad. They discussed sing job, production, cost decrease thought, new engineering, participative direction, Decision doing on new things etc.. They are tried to work out job at section degree. If it ‘s non possible than conveying it to direction degree and hunt solution. Quality circle is good construct in direction theory and RNPL wholly follow to this and short out job on root degree and avoid hold. This is besides responsible for cost economy and quality betterment.
Porters Value Chain
Michael Porter ( 1985 ) the strategic discoverer of the ‘Porter Value Chain ‘ constructed a concatenation consequence understanding that every concern should implement for logical apprehension and consciousness of its inputs and end products as a concern. He separated the concern maps into primary and secondary methods, primary being dedicated to the merchandise or service and secondary being supportive methods to help the primary.
Porters ( Michael Porter 1985 ) Value Chain ( VC ) . From the theoretical account suggests, that no issue how many operational units that are concerned in the class of bring forthing client value ; these primary actions can be conceptualised into five common phases. The five primary phases are inward logistics, operations, outbound logistics, selling and gross revenues, and service. These primary phases are supported by the houses ‘ substructure, human resource direction, engineering development, and buying and procurance. The phases within the VC should non be seen in segregation but looked at in a wider context and include the connexions between phases non merely within the procedures. The relationship between gross revenues, operations and procurance for case can find how much stock is to be carried and hence reflected in cost of stock list held.
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( Ref Book – Operation Management Processes and Supply Chain – Lee, Larry & A ; Manoj )
Value activities are divided in to two types, Primary activities and support activities. Primary activities involved in the physical creative activity of the merchandise, gross revenues and transit to the purchasers every bit good as after sells services. Primary activity alienated into five classs. Support activities are support to primary activities and each other given that purchased inputs, engineering, human resources and assorted firm-wide maps.
The primary activities of the administration are group in to five chief countries:
Inbound logistics: RNPL concerned with receiving, ramping and administering the inputs to the merchandises. In this included natural stuffs, handling, stock control, transit etc..
Operation: the transmutation of these assorted inputs into the concluding paper or newspaper: machine, packaging, proving etc.
Outbound logistics: The aggregation, storage and distribution of the merchandise to clients. In RNPL involves Product were house activities, stuff handling, transit etc. In this portion most of import to convey services to client on fixed location.
Marketing & A ; gross revenues: in this portion RNPL create their ain image in paper industry by advertisement, highest production per twenty-four hours and strong disposal section. Besides loosening with client and take a provender back of client.
Servicess: all the activities depend upon services after sells. After sells services consist of installing, start up of merchandise, replacing, guarantees etc. RNPL besides provide quality confidence warrants to client.
The support activities divided in to four countries.
Procurement: all primary activity have been refers to the procedure of geting the assorted resource. This is the chief portion of the administration.
Human Resource direction: RNPL is really hapless about human resources and this is the chief root of job. Here value concatenation is play of import function to underscore more preparation & A ; development, motive like supervising & A ; non supervising ways to workforce, enrolling skilled work force.
Technology development: Technology is straight related with merchandise, procedure or resources. if employees do non understand how to run equipment, its create large job for house. In RNPL most of the work force recruit experienced with higher wage graduated table. This is increase production cost to house. If they create their ain work force by supplying T & A ; D to old staff is better than higher new staff.
Infrastructure: RNPL program lay out and substructure is good but some topographic point require some alteration. Infrastructure is besides dwelling of the construction and modus operandis of the administration that sustain RNPL civilization.
This all activities are implement absolutely by RNPL is must be require for in competitory footings, value is the sum that purchaser are willing to pay for what a houses provided them with merchandise perceived value. Value concatenation theoretical account is really helpful to RNPL for win to paper market and hence they have to implement and follow above all activities.
So value concatenation is guide to industry how to win market and make ain image in market. For RNPL has a value concatenation is cardinal success.
As pupil I can non give the exact thought about reading merely few documents for the company which is running successfully since 1991. Company has history of19 old ages they have created their name and celebrity through their working form and work force who works for them. I am small spot little to evaluated and give the recommendation to the company ‘s board of managers they are the mastermind in their planning and execution of their Operation Management systems.
1 ) Most of the companies are fabricating merchandise depend upon order or do to stock. RNPL is besides following these methods. But RNPL non utilize perfect public presentation prosodies in procedure and these are the chief ground for hold in fabricating merchandise. As a pupil I would wish to propose to RNPL, if they will follow some below expression for fabricating procedure. Defiantly they will about accomplish their mark.
Operation clip = Setup clip
Throughput clip = Average clip for a unit to
move through the system
Speed = Throughput clip
Cycle Time Example
Suppose RNPL had to bring forth 10 paper axial rotation in 50 hours to run into the demand demands of a merchandise. There are 3000 proceedingss ( 60 minutes/hour ten 50 hours ) in 50 hours. So the mean clip between completions would hold to be: Cycle clip = 3,000/10 axial rotation = 300 proceedingss.
Process Throughput Time Reduction
All of this work done after RNPL should use bawl chief three construct for procedure.
A ) It must be execute activities in corresponding.
B ) Change the series of activities.
C ) Reduce breaks
2 ) Human Resource Management:
Worlds are core portion of procedure and they have been a peculiar platform in Organization. Human is sensitive portion of operation direction. If employees are non satisfied, organisation will free mark. Employees play of import function in quality direction and hold a power to do determination that will better quality and client services. Strategic ends for quality and client satisfaction require teamwork and group engagement. RNPL is face deficiency of satisfaction in their employees and that for so many causes are responsible.
I would wish to propose some thoughts for implementing in company for success in paper sector.
Employees are non satisfied with direction systems. Management follows bossy and close leading and this is demotivate to employees. If RNPL will understand employees requirement and alter the direction styles towards employees, decidedly company will acquire unbelievable growing.
Change the direction manner from Autocratic to Liberal, means employees have been invite for determination devising, Quality circle, engagement in direction, giving more duty etc.. These all are motivate to employees for accomplishing end.
RNPL should more concentrate on Technical & A ; commercial preparation to employees. Trained work force is more productive as good qualitative and besides Time rescuer. RNPL should be implement below T & A ; D activities through minimise cost, clip and maintain quality.
Create Apprentice force in the Organisation. Apprentice is productive, cheaper and easy to available.
Provide more paper machine operation preparation to employees and these are utile for minimise cost and increase qualitative production.
Job specification has been implementing in Organisation. Employees have been mastery in work through it. These is cardinal of maintain quality, cost and clip.
Job rotary motion is besides of import portion of operation. It should be implementing in RNPL.
Besides provide commercial preparation like clip maintaining, communicating, leading, cost decrease etc.
3 ) Raw stuffs section has been besides needed some alteration for Time salvaging and Quality keeping. In screening work per clump require maximal 20 to 30 proceedingss. But deficiency of review on labor makes hold in this procedure. Besides screening work is non traveling accurate. This is making inauspicious impact on Paper quality and deinking sections system. So as per my suggestion direction have to take rigorous measure against labor.
4 ) . Merchandise wear house section is terminal of the fabrication procedure portion. This section is looking storage, separation and merchandising work. RNPL has tonss of infinite for storage. In malice of arise scarceness of infinite due to miss of skilled staff. They have no any proper storage system which is helpful for identify thickness wise paper. So they have to implement storage system like stock list direction system.
5 ) Central Engineering shops is located so far off from chief nucleus section in program. Maximal clip wasted in aggregation for equipment from shop to concern section. If cardinal section located near to core section, decidedly maximal clip will be saved by RNPL.
I conclude that although most concerns look different in their operation most of them really are similar because all concerns need a foundation to get down off with and when they build from their foundations this is where differences occur because of their overall concern program in the 5 key concern map. They are Operations Management, Human Resource Management, Marketing, Accounting & A ; Finance and Information Management in which they operate from. They start to postpone within the sectors they build their concern on as every concern has a different manner of acquiring their merchandises and services frontward depending on the market they explore in which they try to rule through success to maintain the concern alive.
They key difference is how they outsource their organizational function and activities all depend on how the concern is adapted to run to run into the demand of the concern ‘s activities. This is critical for the concern to carry through their organizational demands so the operation of the concern is unflawed and it will maximize their organizational productiveness and stableness.
History of RNPL: ( Appendix – 1 )
Rama Newsprint and Papers Ltd is largest private sector in Printing & A ; Writing paper fabrication company at a individual topographic point in India. It has 22 per centum capacity of production in Indian newspaper sector, based on Virgin Pulp every bit good as Recycled fiber, to fabricate either 1,44,000 metric tons per annum of Newspaper or 1,80,000 metric tons per annum of Printing & A ; Writing paper or a mix of both. The paper factory was established in 1996.
Its is set up with an equity of Rs. 233 crores ( US $ 50 million ) and stretch over 450 estates of land in small town Barbodhan, Gujarat, India, the company is managed by professional Board of Directors holding tremendous pattern in related fields.The fact that the Company has its confined power works and confined H2O plants, means uninterrupted power and H2O supply taking to non-stop production.
The company is able to bring forth Newsprint and Writing paper from Virgin mush every bit good as Non-conventional natural stuffs. The company has besides verified bottomless promise to the cause of continuing the environment, by puting up a province of the artA installation for industry of Environ friendly Chlorine free paper. The Company has its ain Power works and H2O plants, means uninterrupted power and H2O provide taking to non-stop production. A causative characteristic is the internal technology workshop for defensive care and looking after taking to lasting innovation of procedure, quality and productiveness.
Technical partnership with universe best in the newspaper industry and aided by a highly qualified and dedicated workers of approximately 500 human resources has now seen us acquire bigger into synergistic industries every bit good as put up an sell overseas being in Asia and Africa.
Water: RNPL has sufficient H2O bring for its workss and for general human usage from Narmada & A ; Water Resources Department, Government of Gujarat. RNPL has besides occupied a scope of enterprises for H2O upkeep such as Rain H2O harvest home, recycling & A ; re-use of H2O in the procedure of fabrication.
Power: RNPL has 23 MW confined power works installed at site, which ensures supply of quality power for lasting operation of the works without any interruption due to power cuts. RNPL has besides reserve unit of 17 MW installed at site. Majority of RNPL ‘s power demand is met through confined works. However It has power authorize boundary of 8500 KVA for paper factory and 550 KVA for natural H2O supply intake pump house from Gujarat Electricity Board in instance of any possibility or excess demand.
To set up ourselves as leaders in the paper industry in footings of efficiency, productiveness, profitableness and above all, client service..