ET213: heat and friction of the engine, grid heaters


ET213: Project in the engineering environment


4 Stroke engine cycle

We Will Write a Custom Essay Specifically
For You For Only $13.90/page!

order now



1)    This cycle is known as intake or suction, the piston
is at
(T.D.C) top dead centre and finishes at (B.D.C) bottom dead centre as the
piston moves down the intake valve is open sucking in air ready for the fuel


 The compression cycle is where the piston and
the pressure created compresses the air and fuel mixture(14.7:1) air to fuel ,
ready for igniting this is done with the intake and exhaust valve closed.


3)    This combustion cycle is normally known as ignition
this is when the piston has had its second revolution and the crankshaft has
made a full 360 degrees. When the piston is on T.D.C the fuel and air mixture
is ignited via the sparkplug and forcing the piston to B.D.C when both valves
are closed.


4)    This cycle is known as the exhaust or outlet when the
piston returns from B.D.C to T.D.C and when the exhaust valve is open the
piston forces the air and fuel mix out.








They are very reliable
due to the piston not going around as much as a two stroke has high rpm
firing the piston rapidly around.

They are very heavy

They have believed to
show more torque and quicker.

Complex in the way it is

They run very clean duo
to the air and fuel and oil being separated until it needs to be used however
the two stoke have oil mixed with fuel.




Petrol and diesel 



a diesel engine there is no need to ignite the fuel via a spark plug in fact
the fuel is ignited duo to the heat and friction of the engine,  grid heaters and block heaters help achieve
high temperatures for combustion during engine start up in cold weather.  Diesel is made from distilled oil and other
products as is petrol that will eventually run out of materials.

Ø A diesel-powered engine can delivery up to 25 to 30%
better fuel economy compared to vehicles powered by petrol engines.

Ø Diesel cars are much slower but they are far stronger
compared to gas-powered vehicles.

Ø Disadvantages diesel costs just as much as petrol and
the performance of diesels aren’t as good as petrol not going as fast.

Ø They also need a lot of maintenance which isn’t good
as well due to them being very complex.



is made from oil like diesel that will also run out if we continue using it at
the rate we do and we will have to find a different source of power or
propulsion for our vehicles that I will explain about soon. And this petrol
does have to include a source of ignition like a sparkplug.

Ø This can produce a lot of energy exactly 10,000
kilocalories when burned.

Ø They have perfectly adjusted the formula duo to it
being existed for a long while.

Ø Since petroleum has been around for some time, people
have found a lot of uses for it. It can now power cars, trucks, boats, and
other kinds of vehicles as well as machines that are used in manufacturing and
other industries.


Ø It can lead to environmental pollution.

this produces a substantial amount of toxic materials. If these are improperly
disposed, they can soak into the ground and spread harmful chemicals that can
pollute rivers and streams and kill animals. Burning petrol gives of large
amounts of carbon dioxide and other gases, which can pollute the air,
contribute to the greenhouse effect, and lead to global warming…


we will run out of oil however there is a debate on how long that will be.




Hybrid cars



hybrid car is one that uses more than one means of propulsion. The definition of hybrid is combining two elements
into one. A hybrid car is combining a petrol powered engine with an electric
motor. Hybrid vehicles use their petrol
powered engine as their main energy source, and use their electric engine to
collect and reuse energy that normally goes to waste in a non-hybrid car. On
the other hand, in a plug-in hybrid vehicle, the petrol powered engine is only
used as a back-up when the electric engine’s batteries run out of charge.




What do hybrid cars

Going green to help save
the environment comes at a price – and it’s not a small one. Hybrid cars are
generally a few thousand dollars more than their counter cars, generally
ranging from £2,000-£5,000 more. If you normally travel short distances and
don’t use a lot of gas, buying a hybrid may not be the best financial decision
for you. This is because it could take years for you to save at the pump what
you will pay up-front for the hybrid portion of the car.  On the other hand, if you have a long commute
to work and have to stop a couple times a week to fill up, then you could be
saving a lot of money over the course of a single year with less frequent gas
station stops.


Hybrid petrol run and electric backs up

Plug in hybrid electric and petrol backs up

Petrol engine diesel the same




 The main advantages of a hybrid are that it
uses less fuel and emits less CO2 than most conventional non-hybrid vehicles.

Because of this, owners
also get extra benefits in the shape of lower rates of road and company car
tax, as well as possibly avoiding congestion charges. However there are some



1.    Environmentally
Friendly: One of the biggest advantages of hybrid car over petrol powered car
is that it runs cleaner and has better mileage which makes it more efficient.

2.    Built From
Light Materials: Hybrid vehicles are made up of lighter materials which mean
less energy is required to run. The actual engine is also smaller and lighter
which also saves much energy and money.

3.    Less
dependence on Fossil Fuels (as in wont need as much): A Hybrid car is much
cleaner and requires less fuel to run. This in turn also helps to reduce the
price of petrol in domestic market.


Not as much power: Hybrid cars are twin powered
engine. The petrol engine which is primary source of power is much smaller as
compared to what you get in single engine powered car!!!! and electric motor is
low power anyway.

Can be Expensive! The biggest backlash of having a
hybrid car is that it may as well steal your money. Hybrid cars are
comparatively expensive than a regular petrol car and can cost £2000 to £5000
more than a standard version.




Full electric and plug in

In the
standard electric car a current is sent to the motor from a battery which in
turn spins and propels the wheels. On estimate an electric car can run up to
140 miles of charge and then has to be plugged back in however a hybrid you can
charge on the go so which one is better. Well hybrids are still not a full
source of sustainable energy so what do you do? Therefore they (scientists) are
figuring out a way of being able to charge your full electric car wherever you
go instead of only getting 140+ miles. But this still needs to be sustainable.
By plug in I mean(they mean) instead of putting petrol into your vehicle you
simply plug a lead from a source via a car park or your home which will
hopefully be everywhere in the future into you car. Basically like you charge a
mobile phone with a lead.







Cheaper to maintain

electric cars don’t need oil changing or added oil you don’t need to pay for
new oil furthermore with been electric there is no need to pay out for petrol
and diesel every time you travel and have to charge it instead. However it will
need charging which will not cost nearly ¼ as much as petrol and diesel but
will not get you as far. They also don’t suffer routine breakdowns and don’t
need any gaskets for oil or liquids if they blow or break. This is normally
because there are fewer moving parts. In fact oil needs changing every
3000-5000 miles.


Better for the environment

cars do not emit any basses or any greenhouse gasses effecting the environments
atmosphere. This would really be a help in city centres duo to the fact they
are many cars polluting there so e-cars would benefit there the most. However
if charging these cars involve burning fossil fuels these benefits are limited.


Reduced Noise Pollution

cars put a stop to noise pollution as they are much quieter. Electric motors
are capable of providing smooth drive with higher acceleration over longer


Little range on full charge

cars are limited by range and speed. Most of these cars have range about 50-100
miles and need to be recharged again. You just can’t use them for long journeys
as of now, although it is expected to improve in future. Furthermore they are
little amounts of recharge points which are also duo to improve in the future
as for now they aren’t many which doesn’t push you towards buying them.






Little space in car

new electric cars have little room and have commonly known only to have a
couple of seats which is not ideal for big families or ones with children up to
two seats. It also doesn’t have much room in the boot for space either so no
company’s would benefit from these.


Battery Replacement

on the type and usage of battery, batteries of almost all electric cars are
required to be changed every 3-10 years.

are many other disadvantages but these are the main…


 Why do we need an
alternative propulsion system?


Due to petrol cars letting out millions of emissions
like carbon dioxide every day its killing the earth and the population of
animals. These harmful exhaust emissions consist of (carbon monoxide,
particulate matter such as sulphur dioxide). Going into detail when they enter
the atmosphere greenhouse gasses have formed around the earth trapping these
other exhaust gasses in heating up the earth. When the earth heats up the ice
melts raising the sea levels destroying habitats and causing global


fuels are going to run out

Sources that create these fuels and oils are going
to run out they are not one bit sustainable. When the demands for these become
to rations the worry is it will start a world crisis. Every country is trying
to find a new resource.


protect against global warming

As I have said fossil fuels are causing
temperatures to rise in the earths atmosphere, people are saying they want
cleaner energy to protect the earth.



save money

fuels can be less expensive to use not just in terms of the fuel itself but
also in terms of a longer service life. This in turn means savings for the long


More convenience

have already made cars more convenient by making the electric cars charge
wirelessly. Nissan have already displayed there new technology that goes by the
name parking assist which does what is says on the tin guides the vehicle into
the spot/charging dock.  All you have to
do is press a button these are more convenient to putting petrol in the vehicle
and driving your car into a space. Duo to a car having more and more sensors
the task of driving the car have reduced a lot and some people say that its
made them more safe. Modified cruise speeds have been created for motor ways
and other roads. Emergency stop, GPS navigation when you think of cars now they
have advanced millions and it keeps going especially when these new sources of
propulsion have been developed.















conclusion and idea of future propulsion

How do you
think propulsion systems will develop?

What system
is best petrol diesel y?


diesel hybrid pure electric nitrogen