Epilepsy over all areas of the brain. These seizures

Epilepsy is a neurological disorder in which the brain activity becomes abnormal causing seizures or periods of unusual behavior, sensation, or loss of awareness. They can last anywhere from a few seconds to a couple of minutes. There is no age gender or race specifically affected by epilepsy. Everyone has an equal risk of having seizures. There is a wide range of types of seizures there are generalized seizures, partial seizures, and absence seizures. Each affect the patient in a different way. some may stare into nothing for a few seconds while others rapidly twitch their limbs. having one seizure does not mean you have epilepsy. At least two unprovoked seizures have to occur for a person to be diagnosed with the condition. For most people the cause of their epilepsy is unknown but when it is identifiable the common causes are brain injury, genetic influence, brain conditions, infectious disease, injury before birth, and developmental disorders. General symptoms of epilepsy include temporary confusion, a staring spell, uncontrollable jerking movement of the arms and legs, and loss of consciousness or awareness but there is specific symptoms for each kind of seizure. Generalized seizures occur over all areas of the brain. These seizures cause the patient to cry out or make some sort of noise their limbs will move in a rhythmic pattern and they may even appear not to be breathing and turn blue. Partial seizures affect one part of the brain so the only the part of the body that is affected is that part of the brain of that controls it. These patients usually have twitching of one specific area of the body. They may repetitively smack their lips or pick at their clothes and appear dazed or confused. Absence seizures occur more commonly in children. They cause impairment and confusion often leading to the patient staring blankly. Repetitive blinking or small movement are also common. Theses seizures are typically brief and could occur multiple times in one day. A few diagnostic texts used to find epilepsy are neurological exams. This exam will check the patient’s behavior, motor abilities, and mental function. Blood test are also taken to see if there any signs of infection, genetic conditions, or other conditions that cause seizures. An EEG is the most common test used to diagnose epilepsy. In this test doctors attach electrodes to the patients scalp. The electrodes record electrical brain activity. The EEG will record any abnormalities in the impulses of the brain and can help the doctor identify the type of seizure the patients is having. A high density EEG is a variation of a EEG the electrodes are placed closer together to more precisely determine the are of the brain that is causing the seizures.  CT scan uses X-rays to obtain cross-sectional images if the brain to reveal abnormalities that cause seizures. A MRI uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create a detailed view of the brain that allows the doctor to see lesions or abnormalities. A spinal tap allows a doctors to test CSF which lets the doctor test for disorders of the central nervous system that may involve the brain. These test and many others are used in the diagnosis process.There are many treatment methods for epilepsy.  Most people with epilepsy can become seizure free by taking one anti-seizure medication , which is also called anti-epileptic medications and other combination medications decrease the frequency and intensity of the seizures. It is also important that the the patient takes their medication correctly. Surgery becomes the next alternative when medication does not work. Neurosurgeons will surgically remove the area of the brain that is causing the seizures when the area where the seizures are originating is small, well defined, and does not interfere with vital functions such as speech, language, motor function, vision, and hearing. Therapies are also used as a method of treatment. One therapy is vagus nerve stimulation.  In vagus nerve stimulation doctors implant a device called a vagus nerve stimulator underneath the skin of the patients chest, similar to a heart pacemaker. Wires from the stimulator are connected to the vagus nerve in their neck. The battery powered device sends burst of electric energy through the vagus nerve and to the brain. The device can usually reduced seizures by 20 to 40 percent. another form of therapy is ketogenic diet. In the diet the body breaks down fats instead of carbohydrates for energy. After a few years, some patients may be able to stop the ketogenic diet under close supervision of their doctor and remain seizure free.Sources: https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/epilepsy/symptoms-causes/syc-20350093https://www.webmd.com/epilepsy/default.htm