Elrica Fredella Candrakanti (016201600132)
Firstania Salsafira Syatri (016201600125)
French 4 batch 2016
International Institution in World Politics: The UNDP and Sea Conservation as 14th point of SDGs
International institutions have a very important role in encouraging, innovating, participation and good governance. United Nations (UN) is one of many International institutions. UN has so many branches and one of the branches is United Nation Development Program (UNDP). UNDP was established by the United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) in 1965. UNDP is one of the multilateral organizations that play a role in supporting developing countries in developing their own capacity, both in natural resources, oceans and in other aspects, in order to achieve development and also more concerning in realizing Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) and one of the important points.
As we know, we as the human and other living creatures cannot live without water. Oceans are the means of support for planet Earth and people. They stream over nearly three-quarters of our planet and hold 97% of the Earth’s water. They create more than parts of the oxygen in the atmosphere and infiltrate 30% of carbon-dioxide produced by the human being, buffering the effects of global warming. Based on the data survey of Marinebio Conservation Society, they estimate 50-80% of all of the living things on earth is found under the ocean surface and contains almost 200,000 acknowledged species, but real numbers might lie in the millions.i Therefore, it filled in as the world’s biggest premise of protein, with more than 3 billion population contingents upon the seas as their principle wellspring of protein. Remittances for angling are favorable the quick diminishment of many fish species and deflecting endeavors to keep and restore worldwide fisheries and connected occupations, driving sea fisheries to deliver US$ 50 billion less every year than they perhaps will. Since deliberately or not, as much as 40% of the world oceans are incredibly influenced by human exercises, and in addition contamination, depleted fisheries, and hardship of seaside region.
Also said on SDGs No. 14, its motivation to reasonably manage and keep up marine and beachfront biological systems from pollution, and also address the effects of sea fermentation. Raising protection and the manageable utilization of sea-based assets completely through worldwide law will likewise help decrease a portion of the difficulties confronting our seas.ii
Does sea conservation really urgent, nowadays? And what does UNDP do to overcome this phenomenon?
1. The Case
These past years the utilization of natural resources in the oceans has posed a very critical threat to the preservation of ecosystems. On the contrary, there are some areas of potential untapped resources optimally. The rate of damage to coastal resources has reached a very alarming level. Over 30% marine habitats are destroyed, usually by human activities, pollution, the fisheries who is do bombing just because they are exhausted with the amount of fish that is much less rather than using the bomb. They do not realize the using of the bomb itself can destroy the corals or can murder the little fish so they cannot regenerate.
Though, the ocean can supply us with the key of the natural resources together with food, medicines, biofuels and any other products. They also help with the breakdown and subtraction of devastate and greenhouse gasses and their coastal ecosystems act as buffers to lessen damage from hurricanes. Maintaining healthy oceans support climate change lessening and alteration attempts. Seashore is also a great place for seeing the sights and recreation. Even more, Marine Protected Areas contribute to poverty reduction by rising fish catches and profits and improving health. They also help repair gender equality, as women do much of the work at small-scale fisheries. The marine environment is also home to a dazzling diversity of gorgeous creatures, ranging from single-celled organisms to the largest animal ever to have lived on Earth which is the blue whale. They are also habitat to coral reefs, one of the most various ecosystems on the earth.
2. The causes of the destruction of the oceans
Pollution can enter the sea specifically. Sewage or polluting substances course through sewage, streams, or seepages specifically into the sea. This is frequently how minerals and substances from mining camps discover their way into the sea. The arrival of other compound supplements into the sea’s biological community prompts decreases in oxygen levels, the rot of vegetation, an extreme decrease in the nature of the ocean water itself. Thus, all levels of maritime life, plants, and creatures are exceedingly influenced.
Mechanical and farming waste is another most basic type of squanders that are straightforwardly released into the seas, bringing about sea contamination. The dumping of dangerous fluids in the sea specifically influences the marine life as they are viewed as unsafe and furthermore, they raise the temperature of the sea, known as warm contamination, as the temperature of these fluids is very high. Creatures and plants that can’t make due at higher temperatures in the end die.
3. Long-term Consequences of Marine Damage
There are several consequences that happened after marine damage such as:
a. Overfishing. As time goes by and the progresses in angling gear, bigger boats, and new following innovations, many fish stocks far and wide have diminished altogether. Fish stocks on mainland rack territories are currently generally thought to be completely or overexploited. Beside, diminishing fish stocks, unsustainable angling practices can have other negative effects on the marine condition.
b. Eutrophication is the consequence of a specific kind of marine contamination. It is caused by the arrival of abundance supplements into beach front territories through streams and waterways. These supplements originate from manures utilized as a part of concentrated cultivating rehearses ashore. And the last one is;
c. Ocean Acidification. There is proof to propose that human exercises have caused the measure of carbon dioxide in our environment to rise drastically. This effects on the marine condition as the world’s seas right now assimilate as much as 33% of all CO2 discharges in our environment. This retention of CO2 makes the pH diminishing, bringing about the seawater ending up more acidic.
i “Little Known Facts About The Ocean,” Marinebio, Marinebio, Accessed on 10 December 1017, http://www.marinebio.org/marinebio/facts
ii “Goal 14: Life Below Water | UNDP Indonesia,” SDGs, UNDP, Accessed on 10 December 2017, http://www.id.undp.org/content/indonesia/en/home/sustainable-development-goals/goal-14-life-below-water.html
Marinebio, “Little Known Facts About The Ocean,” Marinebio Conservation Society, Accessed on 10 December 1017, http://www.marinebio.org/marinebio/facts.
UNDP, “Goal 14: Life Below Water,” SDGs, Accessed on 10 December 2017, http://www.id.undp.org/content/indonesia/en/home/sustainable-development-goals/goal-14-life-below-water.html.
UNDP, “Life Below Water: Why It Matters,” SDGs pdf, Accessed 10 December 2017, http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/wp-content/uploads/2016/08/14_Why-it-Matters_Goal-14_Life-Below-Water_3p.pdf.
UN, “Goal 14: Conserve and Sustainably use the oceans, seas, and marine resources,” SDGs, Accessed on 10 December 2017, http://www.un.org/sustainabledevelopment/ocean.
Conserve Energy, “What is Ocean Pollution,” Accessed on 10 December 2017, https://www.conserve-energy-future.com/causes-and-effects-of-ocean-pollution.php.
Science Learning Hub, “Human Impacts on Marine Environment,” Accessed on 10 December 2017, https://www.sciencelearn.org.nz/resources/144-human-impacts-on-marine-environments.