Education socialisation, in which the educational system teaches children

is an important institution within society, this is because education has been
put into place to achieve several outcomes and to provide a wide amount of
opportunities for both children and adults today. An important function that
education plays is that it carries out the practice of secondary socialisation,
in which the educational system teaches children the basic norms and values of
society in a way that primary socialisation such as friends and family may not
be able to. This provides the child with a wider perspective on certain
situation that happen within society and how they are able to deal with these
situation by applying what they have been taught in homes and the applied
knowledge they have learned in schools. The education system also exhibits
significant functions that provide children with the necessary skills for
employment, religion, sexual orientation, race as well as history of the nation
they are being taught in; British values. This shows that education plays a
massive role in both adults but predominately in children’s lives by socialising them “into
society and coaching them about the values of achievement which will empower
them to be more welcoming to opportunities within society” (Fulcher & Scott, 2007)


education and social class merged together can in fact generate several
discriminations for children. The study of education and its many inequalities
continues to be an area of interest within the education of sociology which has
a positive influence in moulding educational guidelines within the United
Kingdom. Research has projected that discrimination within the educational
system does indeed continue to show existence within the United Kingdom. The
greater or higher an individual may be within the social ladder, the likely
chance they are able to achieve educational success. These outcomes have been
led an enormous display of educational inequalities and questions as to why
these issues are still found within the UK’s education system today.

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to the OECD glossary of statistical terms, material deprivation refers to the
inability for an individual or a household to afford those consumption good and
activities that are typical in society at a given point in time, irrespective
of people’s preferences with respect to these items ( Accessed
15/11/2017). Material deprivation can derive when there is some sort of
underline “poverty”, ill health in one or more parents causing them to be
unable to provide certain things for their children which could eventually lead
to neglect of a child either physically, emotionally and in this case
intellectually. These factors such as these that potentially affect children
who are from working class homes due to low paid incomes within the family or
families that rely on government benefits which stops these children from
attaining educational achievements within schools. They lack basic recourses
each child needs to perform well at school such as books, the correct diet to
fuel a child and a study place at home needed to succeed in their studies but
due to overcrowding this is unlikely to be provided which will therefore cause
a child to underachieve within school which potentially leads a child to pick
up a part-time job when they reach the school leaving age to assist in the
improvement of their living situation and remove several financial strains of
their parents. This is so they themselves are able to pay for school trips,
resources and other necessities to ensure they have the best school experience.


Hasley Heath and Ridge (1980) assessed reasons for inequalities existing with
education for working class children and had found that children who are found
to be in middle class backgrounds had a higher chance to further onto higher
education in comparison to working class children. This is simply due to the
lack of income within working class households as middle-class households are
able to pay for extra curriculum class, activities,


and other things to help them develop their learning in order to achieve great
academic results. However, it can be argued that material attributes are not
always the primary reason for underachievement within working class households
as children from these working-class households are able to attain and achieve
great educational success. According to Hasley Heath and Ridge it is believed
that it is in fact cultural factors such as “encouragement and
parental attitudes that played major roles within a child’s
educational achievement and attainment within school”.

(Abercrombie Warde and Deem, 2001)



deprivation is a theory within sociology which claims that member of the
working class cannot easily acquire cultural capital, hampering their access to
education as well as upward social mobility. This theory can also be defined as
a situation in which a parent who is unable to provide in the way of “linguistic stimulation and interest in their
child’s education. It is also when a
child has limited time to play and engage in other experiences which are helpful
to a child’s intellectual development”. (Silver, 1980.

P40). This
statement recognises that rather than material deprivation causing
inequalities, it is actually cultural deprivation that causes the working class
to perform very differently when compared to their peers. It can be argued that
working class children are deprived because the working class “subculture
fails to transit the correct values and skills needed for high achievement”
within the
education system (Fulcher & Scott). Equally, a lower value is fixed on
educational attainment and achievement as it is seen that the working class
primarily focuses on an instant gratification where they are influenced to
leave education once aged 16 and earn and income rather than “Opting
for a deferred gratification” which middle class households adopt, this is where
education to them is seen as a road to success as it typically results to
higher paid jobs. Although as argued before within most cultural settings such
as lower class families from minority homes such as black people and Asian
people, education is typically used a key to many opportunities as it is less
likely they will have access to the educational benefits that the United
Kingdom has to offer which may result in a lower class child achieving much
greater results than the middle class child as they are typically enrolled onto
good schools and later on good jobs due to the old school boys networking
whereas in this case most lower class families are unable to access these few
privileges. It can also be argued
that cultural deprivation does not typically exist in lower class households,
especially the ones where minorities live as these types of people try as much
as possible to encourage their community to be better and become successful to
give back to those lower-class households that are unable to provide
encouragement and also materials to their children in order for them to also
become successful within education and later on prominent within their job
roles. However, it is more likely for a child to suffer from cultural
deprivation than material deprivation which could lead them to become deviant
within classrooms which could result in exclusion from the educational
institution they were in. the lack of encouragement from schools as well as
within the home can later result in the working-class child to become part of
gangs and potentially result to violence as they given the attention and
encouragement from negative influences.


Douglas (1962) study of “The home and The
School” supports the theory of cultural
deprivation theory, He
led a longitudinal study in the 1960’s of a number of children and monitored
their educational path until they reached the school leaving age of 16. He
separated the students into various social group and had discovered that there
were variety within the educational achievement but the achievements came from
different social classes. Douglas found that within the higher ability groups,
majority of the working-class children had left


within the 5th year in comparison to the 10 percent found in the
middle class. Douglas argued that the most significant factor which caused these
dissimilarities within the achievement between the working class and
middle-class children is the points of parental interests and encouragements in
relation to their children’s education. He also argues that parents in working
class households exhibited little to no interest within their children’s
education while parents from middle class households encouraged their children
to attain good grades and encourage them to go on to further education, they
also paid greater attention to their children’s intellectual growth and
development through frequent school meetings, such as parents evenings.


we can see that parental interest positively influence children’s attainment in
school education. It should not be the only factor viewed when clarifying differences
within educational attainment and achievement. It has been argued by Blackstone
and Mortimore (1994) that parents in working class household were unable to
unable to attend parent’s evenings due to demands of their manual jobs.

Consequently, there are many factors that cause inequalities within class and
education, but the main examples derived from this assignment have been
material and cultural deprivation and how both play a huge role in the way a
child progresses within the educational system. In my opinion, material
deprivation does play a greater role in the way a child learns because in order
for a child to have the best school experience and attain and achieve good
grades, money has to be spent to ensure they are involved in as much activities
and extra-curricular activities possible. Although cultural deprivation is a
factor of underachievement within some working-class homes, it is not having
great within working class households who are minorities as they use education
as a key and as a tool to better life for them and their family as educational
benefits are not as accessible within their counties as it is within the United