During of water will increase by 55% in 2050

During all of his
lifetime, the human had always need the water, indeed it is the most essential for
human civilization (Qu et al., 2013) and it is crucial for all aspects of life,
the defining feature of our planet (Corcoran et al.,2010). Consequently, its
existence is essential and fundamental that is fundamental to human survey and
well-being; but the sustainability of the water depends on the way of its
managing (well managed). Well managing of water resources combines the 3 pillars
of sustainable development, so the, smart water management can be defined as a
pre-condition of sustainable development. Managed efficiently, water plays a
vital role in strengthening the resilience of social, economic and
environmental systems in the face of rapid and unpredictable changes.

However, during the
recent years, the water resources is under pressure due to human activities
such as the increasing of the human population, urbanization; and natural activities
such as climate change enhances these pressures. Indeed, the demand of water
will increase by 55% in 2050 and consequently the recurrent fear among public today will be proved
that the World is going to suffer from lack of water in the present century
(Marsily, 2006). In addition, the increasing economic development and
human migration stress water resources and water quality in many regions (Wang
et al., 2017). In plus, the climate change deteriorates the quality and the quantity
of the water. Then as mentioned below, the water is essential to human life then
to ensure the ensure human security and health and to protect environment the
water and wastewater treatment is an essential task in environmental
engineering. In the twentieth century, innovation in water-treatment saved
millions of human lives by preventing waterborne diseases like cholera,
diarrhea, and hepatitis.

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At recent times,
the disease caused by non-safe drinking water is still increased. The water can
cause disease in some country of Africa where the climate change enhances the
water scarcity (Wandiga
et al.). It is estimated that around 502,000 diarrheal deaths
in low- and middle-income countries can be attributed to insufficient and
unsafe drinking water (WHO, 2014). Equally, without treatment, the wastewater represents a high risk for environment
and for human health.

Consequently, due to these facts, the treatment of drinking water and
wastewater should be improved to meet the world population demand. This paper talks
about the technologies used basically to treat the drinking water and the waste
water. So, this report contains firstly, all the processes
for drinking water treatment and one case study and secondly wastewater
treatment plant technologies with the wastewater treatment technologies in
China as a case study.