Developmental psychology Essay

Physical development In this assignment I’m going to talk about the different stages of physical development in children since they are born until they reach 1 9 years old. From 0-3 months the baby sleeps most of the time. At birth they got little control over their body and most of the movements are reflexive like turning the head, more the lips or suck the finger when they need to be feeded. A baby is ready to reach out on the arrival but before the fine motor skills can develop the reflex has to fade.

If I put y fingers on the babys hand automatically will wraps his fingers around mine. By 2 months they stretch out to touch a toy, for example if the child is in a bouncer with a toy bar attached he will try to reach them. This is also an example of hand-eye coordination, the baby sees a toy hanging and tries to get it. At this stage the start to wave the arms and they learn how to roll from side to back and kick the legs. Their eyesight is very limited so it’s better to position or place the object at about 25 cm of distance.

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Babies develop physically from the head down so is expected to have control over the head nd neck before the arms or legs. From 3-9 months the baby wants to move and is motivated by the satisfaction of being able to control the body. The head control is already established and babies are able to push up with the arms during the tummy time. They have better control of the small movements and with better hand-eye coordination can direct the hands to the object, can put toys in a box, take them out as well as search for objects.

They will earn how to sit (from 6 months unaided) and how to roll because of the neck and chest strength. The eye sights develops quickly in line with the ine motor skills, trying to reach out for things. As the baby’s grasps improve, they love to handle and explore books and toys with different sixes and textures. They can put them from one hand to another. Some babies begin to crawl at this stage and they will try to move holding the furniture, for example going around a table or chair holding it. At bath time they happily splash moving the arms and legs.

From 9-18 months the baby will move around crawling, walking or bottom shuffling. They develop the ability to stay upright. Not all the babies develop at the same time so it’s shouldn’t be any cause of concern. My 16 months old daughter started crawling when she was 7 months and by 12 months she took her first steps. Some children will start sooner or later. At this stage they are able to consolidate the manual skills and well as hand-eye coordination. They will learn to play with different toys and can hold a crayon to scribble or a paintbrush.

This is the perfect time to introduce them to messy play with crayons, playdough and paint. They can throw things and pick them up, hold a cup or spoon, point to objects and push a ball. At this stage they can stack up blocks or shapes. From 18months-2 years the toddler runs, jumps, climbs and kicks. The grip is becoming more adult-like and they are able to feed themselves. The increased flexibility in the wrist means that they can move the crayon or brush in different directions. With the greater hand-eye coordination they can throw a ball in the direction they intend and they can sit and ride a toy with their feet.

From 2-3 years they are able to undress themselves managing large buttons or Velcro fastening. The toddler wants to help and will get a big satisfaction from accomplishing practical tasks such a pulling a sock, undoing a strap or fitting a puzzle piece. They are able to build more complex activities nd more into complex play. At this stage one of the biggest changes is the change on arms and legs. They have more physical activity and the muscles develop quickly. Some children they start to be potty trained at his age and eventually they learn how to stay drier.

From 3 to 5 years the physical development focus on the improvement of the skills acquired in previous stages. They are able to run with good arm-leg coordination and are able to Stop, go up and down the stairs,swingskip with one foot and gallop. Children have great confidence on the physical abilities, they can walk in straight ine,backwards,able to use paint/scissors or pencils with confidence and can do simple chores with assistance and direction (for example cut out some shapes)At this stage they are being in charge of their own toileting but they may still wet the bed at night.

From 5-7 years they begin to show the skills to start to succeed in school. They are able to use paints, pencils and crayons with a better control. They can also complete other tasks like dressing/undressing brushing the teeth and combing the hair. The shoelaces still can be complicated for them. Children begin to master new forms of physical play for example swing on heir own, jumping, skating and hitting balls with bats or rackets (cricket, tennis… ). Many children Of this age learn organized sports such a football and basketball. They also enjoy physical activities like karate, gymnastics, dance or swimming.

Children will be potty trained but if they are busy in an activity they like or upset can have occasional accidents. From 7-12 years children are fairly independent and the coordination and stability continues to improve. The body is going through physical changes because it begins to prepare towards the teenage years. The handwriting improved considerably and can o more complex construction activities. They grow taller and will lose all the baby teeth during this period. Children are confident on tasks like dressing/ undressing, Including shoelaces, buttons or other type of fastening.

They can ride a bike without stabilisers, bounce a ball several times, catch a ball in the air and can learn how to sew. From 12-19 years many changes will happen to a child’s body: the beginning of the puberty. They experience sudden and rapid increases in height, weight and strength. Their motor skills are improved, now they mastered the activities of jumping, swimming skipping or running. This can be a time of great energy and achievement in sports. Their handwriting becomes more legible and the drawing skills improved.

INTELLECTUAL DEVELOPMENT In this part I’m going to write about how the ability to store information, memory and understanding develops according to the age. From 0-3 months babies are naturally attracted to things that are moving, shiny and bright. They are able to recognize parents and other familiar voices. As the baby can focus at a short distance is fascinated about faces. They become aware of different smells and they are able to recognize someone familiar (for example a mothers scent). From 3-9 months babies are able to recognize more people as well as certain objects and sounds.

They process the information through images and show interest on everything. They can follow the direction of an object specially if it’s colourful or makes noise (for example the mother shaking a rattle). At this stage they tend to observe everything around them and once they are mobile they will love to explore. They can recognized expressions and facial movements. Babies learn that it they reach out the arms to mum or dad they are going to be pick up. From 9-18 months they start developing their senses specially the sight because they can see etter and the touch.

They understand some colours and shapes, show recognition of sounds (for example water running in the bathtub means bath time). They will try to copy and imitate what other’s do. For example, if they have a key they will try to insert it into the lock Of a door or if they grab the remote control they will press the buttons in order to change channels). They can follow simple instructions and make gestures about something they want. The understanding of cause-effect grows, they will drops objects and will watch them falling on the floor. Also they know the objects exists even if hey are hidden.

They can read facial expressions and if someone cry or laugh they will do the same. From 18 months-2 years they are able to recognize objects and identify body parts. At this stage the information comes with the language not only images like before. Children are able to enjoy imaginary play, for example a little girl will think her doll is her baby. They begin to think about something not being present (my daughter knows the cupboard where the biscuits are and when she wants one she takes me there holding my hand and points at it). At this stage children can match basic colours and shapes.

From 2-3 years their imagination is at a peak point. They are able to group objects according to colour, size or shape. Can name and identify objects in pictures and point to body parts when are asked. Children develop the memory and is beginning to form mental images of how things happen. They understand the meaning of sizes (big/small), time (today, tomorrow, and yesterday) and can show some awareness about what is right and wrong. From 3-5 years they use large Sentences and the grammar improves. Starts to understand short stories and can sing simple songs and rhymes from memory.

They tend to ask a lot of questions (why, what). Children are able to follow two or three step instructions. They have their own opinion about what they like and dislike. From 7 to 7 years they are still curious and ask many questions. Are able to write and read, some children simple books and others more advanced. They can follow three step instructions, can solve easy jigsaws and puzzles, they are more aware about what is right and wrong. A child is aware of other people point of view. From 7-12 years they are able to perform multiple classification tasks, order objects in a logical sequence and can read more complex texts.

Children can put a barrier on what is real and what is magination, the drawings are more detailed, can follow complex instructions and are capable of problem solving. At this stage they can think logically and in organized manner. They can play games with rules and is capable to use a computer. They can get more complex information and knowledge. From 12-19 years the comprehension and writing skills are at a high level. This is a time of maturing in the mind and develop more responsibility for their thoughts, words and actions. Teenagers develop more creative abilities and they understand more complex mathematical or scientific problems.

They ake personal responsibility for finances (they want to have or earn their own money) and they see each other people’s point of view LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT In this part I’m going to write about how the speech and communication skills grows with the child. From 0-3 months they make a variety of happy sounds and will respond to different sounds and music. They are aware of other sounds and recognized them. Crying is a way of communication to indicate a wet nappy, wind or hunger. From 3-9 months they are able to make a genuine smile and recognize familiar names. Children start babbling and say simple words like ma-ma or ba-ba.

They are able to shout to get attention, can laugh to show happiness. They like to look at pictures and books. From 9-18 months a child can learn simple words from everyday life and imitate sounds. The vocabulary is small, about 20 words maximum. They still enjoy books and look at the pictures. From 19 months-2 years they move from using single words to putting them together as a sentence. They tend to repeat words they hear from other people and start asking a lot of questions. Children like to participate in rhymes and they like books, will understand key words. The vocabulary will increase until approximately 200 words.

From 2-3 years children put words together in a sentence and can deliver simple messages. At this stage they begin to get more information and ask more questions. They are able to join in well songs and can put actions into words. The vocabulary increases at about 300 words and still enjoy the books, songs and rhymes. From 3-5 years they can deliver verbal messages and are able to understand two or three simple things to do at once (for example: get a glass of water ,give it to your brother and put it back in the kitchen). They can sort objects by size, colour or shape. The vocabulary has between 900 and 1 500 words.

At this stage still they are going to ask a lot of questions. From 5-7 years they use more complex sentences. The reading and writing skills are improved and the vocabulary will be between 1500 to 4000 words. Children are able to talk about something present or past with more detail. The grammar is more accurate and the questions are more complex. They use the language to communicate their own ideas, recognize an increasing number or letter linking them into sounds. From 7-12 years the vocabulary goes between 4000 to 10000 words, and this will grow if adults introduce new words and ways of using language.

The reading skills are more complex as well as their writing skills. They speak fluent and can describe complicated happenings (for example if they go on holiday they can say and describe what they saw or did with detail). Children are able to know and use the different tenses, the grammar is good and they use the literacy skills to communicate and get information (dictionaries, books, computers). From 12-19 years the vocabulary goes between 10000 and 20000 words. They can use different writing styles and different language according to the occasion (for example they will not use the same language in the classroom than with friends).

They can follow complex set of instructions. SOCIAL AND EMOTIONAL DEVELOPMENT In this part I’m going to show the different ways children interact with others and the environment, as well as show how the emotions change and increase. From 0-3 months they respond to adult’s voice and face. They become attach to the parent (usually the mother) and they are dependant for reassurance and comfort. During feeding the baby will concentrate on faces. From 3-9 months they enjoy the company of others and games like peek a boo. They develop attachment to people they see regularly (mum, dad, brother, sister… nd show affection to the carer but till shy with strangers. The baby has clear likes/dislikes. For example if they dont like certain type of food they will push the bowl or plate away. From 9 to 18 months the child will become distressed if is separated from people she/he knows. They tend to be upset if they see other children in distressed (my 16 month old daughter starts crying if she sees other child crying). At this stage they are happy to play with other children and they want to have their own way becoming upset when the adults says no to something. They show egocentric behaviour thinking that everything belongs to them.

From 18 months-2 years they enjoy playing with adult or other children. They develop sense of own identity wanting to do things by themselves and enjoy imitating adults activities but emotionally they still depend on others. If they are not able to do something (for example complete the stacking) they become frustrated and angry. From 2-3 years they rely on a parent for new situations or when they are with strangers. A child can understand the feelings of others but still their own feelings are more important (egocentric behaviour). From 3-5 years they become more independent and self-motivated.

Because they rely less on a parent they are sociable and friendly with others, play with other children and are more able to share. Children are aware of needs of others and show concern if someone is crying or upset. They feel more secure and able to cope with something that is not familiar and adults for periods of time. From 5-7 years they can easily make friends but may need help in resolving disputes. They can comfort other children who are upset or unwell. At this stage they develop the understanding of rules but still find turn taking difficult. The learn a lot about the world, about people and realtionships.

Some children have an imaginary friend and is perfectly normal, they talk and act the same way that with other child because for them is like real. Generally they enjoy helping others and taking responsibility. From 7-12 years they become more independent and aware of their own gender. At this stage they know more about the environment. Children start to form closer friendships and like to play with the same sex friends. They want to belong to a group and they have at least one special friend. From 12-19 years they are fully aware of the feelings and rights of others.

The teenager become self-conscious as changes n the body take place, so more than anything they need reassurance. Their bodies and emotions are experiencing drastic changes and they tend to be very sensitive. At this stage they are very confident of their own skills and ideas that is why they have strong opinions. This fact can lead to argument with parents, other adults and friends. They have a complex understanding of the environment and enjoy the company of others.