Desalination same processes. One can revert back to the

Desalination has allowed mankind to tap into the world’s largest water supply and transform it into water that meets our usable standards across the globe. Water desalination is a quite simply process where by fresh usable water is made from water that is filled with excessive impurities. This process usually will remove salts but it can remove other minerals from the impure water to create fresh water. More often than not this process is used to convert ocean water (heavy salt concentration) into usable water. These systems are done on a much larger scale while keeping the same processes. One can revert back to the basic water cycle to gain a base conceptual understanding of how this process functions. The idea is separation of the water from the solids that contaminate the water usually done by heating the water until it becomes a vapor. This vapor once separated from the previous aea with the impurities is rapidly condensed back into water, liquid form, but is now considerable purer and able to use. While this process is used in nature modern technology has allowed man kind to move away from this slow process and towards faster and more innovative ones that are substationaly more effective. One type of system is Reverse osmosis  and Nanofiltration  as these will typically use membranes to filter out the water. Most membranes fall under spiral wound, hollow fiber with spiral being most commonly used. Ultimately this process is pressure driven to force cross flow filtration. Electrodialysis and Electrodialysis Reversal are processes that are driven by direct currents where ions flow through an ion selective membrane to the electrodes of the opposite charges. This differs from the previous process as the ions are being moved not the water. However in Electrodialysis Reversal  systems,  polarity is reversed periodically to allow anion and cation membranes to separate ions in the water. Systems like these are used for water with low total dissolved solids. Forward osmosis  is a newer more commercialized process by which a salt concentration gradient is the  force that drive it through a synthetic membrane. The feed, which is usually seawater resides on one side of a semi permeable membrane while the higher pressure is on the opposing side. With no external pressure  water from the feed migrates through the membrane to the higher solution. The diluted form of the solution is separated from the reusable higher solution. Membrane Distillation  is another membrane process, but is not heavily commercialized. Membrane Distillation  is a mixture of Reverse osmosis and basic distillation where a hydrophobic membrane permits the flow of a vapor through pores, but not the solution. Desalination is used to provide fresh usable water for people who don’t have access easily or access to a lot of fresh water. These can range from remote areas to areas with only access to impure bodies of water. Most of this water is used to create drinking water for the public producing billions of gallons of fresh water. Desalination is prevalent in areas that are supported by wealthier countries as these process are extremely expensive. There are roughly twenty one thousand plants world wide spanning across one hundred twenty different countries. However only about fifty percent of them use sea water as their feed source to produce clean water as some countries and interior non ocean based water bodies. Portable water is any water that is able to be taken with an individual during transport and remain contaminant free until consumption. These most often come in sealed water bottles or large containers that will later fill bottles to be distributed world wide.