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Daja LindseyProfessor HanleyPeriod 418 December 2017The Second War of IndependenceAn average American is only vaguely aware of why the most obscure war happened in 1812 and who the enemy was.  Even those who know something more only remember a little of the dramatic moments such as the creation of The Star Spangled Banner (National Anthem), the burning of the nation’s capital, and lastly the battle of New Orleans. The war of 1812 has causes that complex and little understood to this day. It is said to be a series of economic sanctions taken by the British and French against the US as part of the Napoleonic Wars and American outrage at the British practice of impressment, especially after the Chesapeake incident of 1807. However, after a deep investigation, I have discovered that the war of 1812 has shaped American identity by boosting the country? self-confidence and encouraging the growth of American expansionism which shaped the better half of the 19th century and it also showed the nation a role in which the president plays from dealing with James Madison. There was a crisis growing between the US and the Britians that went up against the background of worsening Indian connections to the west side of the Appalachian mountains. The war began with the attack on Canada, with two main objectives: to gain land and cut off the British supply line to Techumes Indians confederation, which troubled the United States. The battle against Canada was not as easy as they hoped and because they were inexperienced they were pushed back rapidly. General William Henry Harrison’s forces did manage to kill Tecumseh at the Battle of the Thames in 1813, in the midst of a decisive victory against the British General Isaac Brock’s smaller force.  In 1812 British troops landed the bay area and began marching toward Washington. A US general named William Winder made an attempt to try to stop the British forces but the British troops were badly routed. Soon Washington was being evacuated, due to the fact that the capital also known as the l white house was up in flames The British keep moving with the intention to invade Baltimore however, after General Ross was killed their movement was stalled. Cochrane’s forces bombarded Fort McHenry, which guarded Baltimore’s harbor, but were unable to take it. It was this exact moment right here that inspired Francis Key Scott (an imprisoned lawyer) to write the Star Spangled Banner. By mid-1812’s both sides were starting to realize that this fight was tougher than they expected. Britain began catching up in the costly Napoleonic Wars, only so they could find a way to extricate themselves from America’s commitment. As a result, American negotiators met with the British diplomats, they worked together to create the treaty of Ghent on December 24, 1814, officially ending the war. The war of 1812 ended in a stalemate, and It did not address the issue of impressment, which was one of the major causes of the war. In fact,  the War of 1812 only took place because Great Britain had violated America´s supreme power by refusing to surrender western territory which they had promised to do in the treaty of Paris. One of the main plans was the remove the Indians by buying their land so that he could expand the African American slave system. However, during this time the Indians refused to cooperate and civilize themselves. By the 1800’s, nearly 400,000 Americans lived on the west side of the Appalachian mountains which outnumbered the Indians and lead them to re-think their decisions. Soon the Americans became an influence on the Indians, they started to promote civilization, help with slave-owning farms and also establish businesses. These influences angered the Nativist wished to root out European influences and resist white encroachment on their lands. In order to regain their autonomy without challenging or repudiating the white, the Indians were ordered to farm and attend school. After, James Madison became a war president reports that the British supported Tecumseh efforts also became another reason why the war of 1812 came to be. In addition, they also terminated American sea vessels and began forcing subjects on the vessels into British military. Even though the war of 1812 had ended the news spreaded slowly across the Atlantic and as a result the British troops landed in New Orleans still awaiting their new commander, General Packenham. On January 8, 1815 the British were defeated in the battle of New Orleans and even though this battle was unnecessary because the treaty had already been signed the US still celebrated, manifesting a upsurge in American nationalism.civilization, help with slave-owning farms and also establish businesses. These influences angered the Nativist wished to root out European influences and resist white encroachment on their lands. In order to regain their autonomy without challenging or repudiating the white, the Indians were ordered to farm and attend school. After, James Madison became a war president After the War of 1812 ended many people soon called it the second war of independence. This war allowed many African Americans to escape the British controls and achieve the goal of freedom. It has confirmed that never again will the British or Indians pose a threat to America control of this vast region. The war of 1812 broke the remaining power of Indians in the old west and reduced their holdings in the south. The aftermath lead white settlers to pour into Indian, Michigan, Alabama, and Mississippi, bringing with them their distinctive forms and social organizations. In addition, there we other long-term causes such as the establishment negotiation of people with differences instead of just firing shots, the United States being the last nation to abandon privateering because it caused many to suffer, and lastly the American philosophy changed from “militias” to “regular army”. During the next forty years, the United States built a professional army and stopped relying on the militia for defense. By the Civil War, both sides were fighting with professional armies who received regular pay, were extensively trained, and had officers promoted on merit rather than connections. The War of 1812 allowed the new nation to break free of its colonial past, and told the nations of Europe that a new player had emerged on the world stage which was realized the moment British diplomat Augustus J. Foster acknowledged at war’s end, “The Americans . . . have brought us to speak of them with respect.”