Cutaneous leishmaniasis is one of the major diseases in tropicaland subtropical areas. It is caused by parasites of Leishmania tropica andLeishmania major. It is a health problem in 88 countries, and because of theimportance of controlling and preventing its spread, it is one of the toppriorities of the international community, including the World HealthOrganization. Today, chemotherapy, especially the use of five-componentantimony compounds, such as glucantime, is used more than other methods.
Theuse of glucantime in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis causes kidney,liver, heart, and blood disorders. Studies conducted in different parts of theworld show drug resistance in some people with leishmaniasis compared toglucantime. Studies conducted in different parts of the world show drugresistance in some people with leishmaniasis compared to glucantime. The drugresistance to leishmaniasis may be normal, which can be caused by reducedability of the host’s immune system, drug defect, and inadequate treatment ordue to unusual consumption and an increase in the duration of glucantimeconsumption that causes mutations in the genomic leishmaniasis, which in bothcases causes no response to treatment.
In the drug resistance, it has been shownto increase the production of glycoprotein, which is involved in thetransmission of ABC gene, and this gene is a leishmania glycoprotein of typeMDR1 located on chromosome 34. It is an ATP-dependent delivery pump that canreduce the drug’s accumulation in resistant cells and often increase drugresistance. In order to identify gene sequence variations, due to the accuracy,cost and time spent, the HRM (High resolution metion)method seems to be a suitable and powerful tool. HRM is a new and homogeneousmethod after PCR amplification performed in a sealed tube. This method ofgenetic variation analysis (SNPs, mutations and methylation) measures PCRproducts based on the amount of fluorescence reduction during the process ofthermal melting slope of the DNA due tocolor exhaustion and HRM products can be sequenced without any additionalreplication and purification Based on reports of drug resistance caused byglucantime in patients with cutaneous leishmaniasis, this study was conductedto determine and diagnose mutations in the MDR1 drug resistance gene inparaffin tissue samples of leishmaniasis.