Cured-in-place pipe (CIPP) technology is one of the most

Cured-in-place
pipe (CIPP) technology is one of the most commonly used trenchless pipe
rehabilitation methods. In this method, a lining tube containing styrene resin
is installed into the pipe, where the tube has a membrane coating for
protection and it also contains the resin. The resin migrates into the joints
and cracks prior to curing. Subsequent curing with a heat source results in a
pipe within a pipe. Although this method has many advantages, but Styrene is
classified by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) as a mutagen and
is thus potentially carcinogenic (Donaldson 2009).

The
main way that humans are exposed to styrene is inhalation. Factors that
determine the effects of styrene on health include the dose (how much), the
duration (how long), and the route of exposure. Chronic exposure to styrene in humans
mostly affects the central nervous system with symptoms such as headache, depression,
weakness, peripheral neuropathy, intellectual dysfunction, minor effects on some
kidney enzyme functions, and short-term memory impairment (DHHS 1993; EPA 2000;
ATSDR 2012). Styrene exposure limits for adults are 20-25 ppm according to the International
Toxicity Estimates for Risk. During a CIPP application in Birmingham, UK, results
from an indoor air test in one house showed styrene levels of 200 ppm, and CIPP
contractors advised some residents to evacuate their homes (Bourbour Ajdari
2016). The attainment of discharge-related permits, including air, water, and
wastewater treatment; dry installations (i.e., no water is contained or
conveyed in the pipe during installation); supplementary lining materials and
measures to safeguard the containment of resin and styrene; comprehensive
rinsing of the finished product; appropriate disposal of cure water, cure
condensate, and rinsate; and requirements for water and soil testing before and
after installation are some of the examples from new CIPP specifications by
VDOT (Donaldson 2009).

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Styrene
has some harmful impacts on health but if correct measures are taken then it
can be very helpful and economical as the non-styrene resins still stay an expensive
option because the cost of a non-styrene resin can range from 50 percent higher
to easily three or four times the cost of a styrene-based resin.