Cultural imperialism is a process in which enhancing and supporting a culture that is more potent and in a better position than the less desirable and lower popularity culture. In general, the first is for a great nation in the military and economics field , and the second Is attributed to a smaller, weaker nation. ( https://en.oxforddictionaries.
com/definition/cultural_imperialism) This concept is a relatively new one and wasn’t an easy one for people to understand exactly. “Cultural Imperialism” is a practice centuries ago had started its goal is the extension of the influence or domination of the culture of one nation over others cultural imperialism contemporary and new theories and why should we reconsidering it. The theory of cultural imperialism is as stated by (oxford dictionary) Extending influence or domination of the culture of a country over other countries now generally through the export of products such as movies, music, etc.
.Imperialism of the media is when by which the ownership, structure, distribution or content of a country media are individually or collectively exposed to significant pressures from the media of a nation or a nation without proportional influence of the country therefore highly influenced (Boyd-Barrett (1977: 117)A specific theory about it established in the 1970s by Herbert Schiller, in order to make of the media situation clear as it was present at that time. The nature of the media presents at the time encouraged a system of transmission from the more potent country to the submitted country which, theoretically, gave birth to a passive public and a very strong influence from the strong authority on them.( https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/cultural_imperialism)Terms like these “media imperialism”, “structural imperialism”, “cultural dependency and domination”, “cultural synchronization”, “electronic colonialism”, “ideological imperialism”, and “economic imperialism” were all used for describing the same concept of “cultural imperialism” and to describe more about the idea for people to understand it easily because it took relatively long time after introducing it for people to have a clear idea about this theory.Meaning British scholar (Boyd-Barrett) who defined media imperialism as “the process whereby the ownership, structure, distribution, or content of the media in any country are singly or together is subjected to substantial external pressures and authority from the media interests of any other country, or countries without proportional reciprocation of influence by the country that is affected”(Boyd-Barrett, 1977, p.
117). However, many felt that Boyd-Barrett definition was too brief and little to give the multiple number of ways took by power relations between numerous Cultures the consideration it deserved, so it wasn’t enough.(Schiller, 1976) “Communication and Cultural Domination” suggested using a collocation like “cultural imperialism” for explaining and describing the way in which big worldwide firms and entreprises which includes media of developed countries dominating rest of the countries. He was known as one of the indispensable proponents of cultural imperialism and what he published in 1976 is always mentioned in studies related to this concept. Roach (1997) identified other main proponents of the concept other than Schiller, purporting that “one of the most influential theorists in the field have been from countries in the west. The Belgian “Armand Mattleart” and Dallas Smythe” (p. 48).
because they were the ones cultural imperialism introduction was about by making it an independent concept.Although Schiller workings was concentrated on the field of communication, a review of the “cultural imperialism literature” showed that it was used as a frame by those specialized in the field of other academicals backgrounds to explain issues in the zone of international relation, education, sciences, history, literature, and sports.. For (Beltran, 1987) cultural imperialism is “a verifiable process of social influence by which a nation imposes on other countries its set of beliefs, values, knowledge and behavioral norms as well as its overall style of life” (p. 184). (definition precise) and theory(Jameson, 1986) Literature belonging to less developed countries in an period of Multinational Capitalism, number of nations from Europe the Americas, Africa and Asia received, a lots of new items are being globalized in cultural and daily life. Jeans, McDonald, rock music, Hollywood mainstream movies, or even the American living style food and ambition and goals etc., and all are being considered the new trends promoted worldwide.
Humans are enjoying culture of the west in food and drinks and being happy; accepting involuntarily the effect of Western civilization on this audience. This kind of cultural infiltration is a more smart established and productive way, than wars using crafts and bombings. This is what contemporary Cultural Imperialism is about.(Sreberny-Mohammadi) “Imperialism” is the invasion and controlling of one nation by a superior in power. It’s about the dimensions of the procedure that ranges from more than economic exploitation or military forces .In the past of colonialism, ( the form of imperialism in which the government of the colony is ruled by foreigners), education and media systems of Third World countries were set up as copies of those in United Kingdom, France, or the United States of America and hold their values. Western advertising has opened farther roads, as well as architectural and fashion.
Subtly still very strong the message often was insinuated that Western cultures are somehow higher, for the cultures of the lower world countries. (Downing, Mohammadi, & Annabelle Sreberny-Mohammadi (1995). Questioning the media: a critical introduction (2) Without the need to mention, all the scholars are in agreement that cultural imperialism is promoting the profits within the imperial powers, often to disrupt or to weaken these targeted cultures(Tomlinson) (Tomlinson, Cultural Imperialism: A Critical Introduction, 1991) He says that imperialization deals with problems that range from the ideological effect of imported cultural products, the operation of cultural homogenization, cultural independence. He evaluates a number of related issues, provides arguments speaking of “media imperialism” And sheds the light on important problems in the way in which the concept of cultural, as distinct from political or economical, imperialism is constituted.Critique The process of “Cultural infiltration” could have a big effect on many nations in losing their national identity, themselves too and then to accept and be satisfied of the superior countries values and their institutes and companies products without even wanting so. The exterior force used in wars like bombings, is not that grave and horrible considering, but more dreadfu and alarmingl than it is the economical and cultural issue that is more subtle and hidden weapon.
If old imperialism basically used guns to invade the world and make slaves of these unarmed, the new “cultural imperialism” in place of the old cultural infiltration, silently invades minds of people from the rest of the countries and forces them to unconsciously approve and be slaves to the very powerful hegemony. (Said) Taught and took Noam Chomsky workings as lessons in his work, Foucault, Edward Saïd is one of the founders of “post colonialism”, created by the writing Orientalism (1978), a human sided review of The Enlightenment, specializes on criticizing the west;s consideration of the Eastern nations, particularly the France and the English concepts of what is and what is not “Oriental”. (Young) And said this concept created cultural tendencies to an two sided oppositition of the East against West, so a concept of one of them is defined in its opposition to the other’s concept, and of it they pop up as of distinct and different value. (Orientalism, 1978) In Culture and Imperialism (1993), Saïd suggested that, even in the concluding (in the finish) of the imperial era after the second big war, “colonial imperialism” formed a legacy to the (priorly) colonized people culturally, whom remain in their current cultures; and that cultural imperialism has a very large effect in the international system of power.
David Rothkopf, (international affairs professor at Columbia University (and served as a senior US Commerce Department official in the Clinton Administration), talked about the same theory in his provocative book (1997) issue of Foreign Policy magazine. Rothkopf: The United States should make it its goal to use “cultural imperialism” in just its own interest”. In Rothkopf’s definition of cultural imperialism emphasizes spreading the values of tolerance and openness to cultural changes to and staying away of war and fights between nations. His definition involving allowance for other nations a choice of accepting or rejecting foreign cultural influences. And he mentioned, the use of the English language and consuming news and trending music and movies as cultural dominance which he sides with. Rothkopf added that globalization and Internet are making west culture effects faster and easier.
(Rothkopf, 1997) Culture is often employed by societies— politicians, theologians, academics, and families for imposing and ensuring order in the world, the principles that change with time as needs suggest and dicts. One need only looks at the 20th century;s genocides. In each one, leaders exploited culture as a front politically to support and help move the feelings of their militaries and their minions in justifying their doings between the people. That’s what he means by dealing with cultural imperialism. so in other words he wants the process to be more productive and beneficial without the drawbacks and bad side effects of the past.Rothkopf also cites genocides in countries as Armenia, Russia, the Holocaust, Vietnam, Iraq, Kuwait and many others as examples of culture being used in a wrong way to justify using force. He also admits that cultural imperialism was guilty of the elimination by force of the cultures of natives Usa and in African continent, and during the expansion of all the colonizing countries. The best way in dealing with this cultural influence in any country, by « Rothkopf » opinions is to encourage tolerance, and accept differences between cultures.
(rothkopf in 1997)(Tomlinson) gave a new theory criticizing of cultural imperialism and revealed its significant issues in a way the concept of cultural, stating an opinion against the politics of how the imperialism is formulated. And also spectulated about the concept that cultural audiences are passive in receiving news and info. Putting also part of the blame on the people in the rise of the theory which he was addressing.EXPERT ANSWERS1.
Globalization has the power to make a very huge impact on environment. Moving things from one place to the other is wasting oil, etc.2. Globalization can change economical norms. There is campaigns that promotes effectively buying locally and particularly organic items.
3. Globalization can lead to hyper-specialization, which may be an advantage, but also has bad side effects in general. 4. Globalization is driven by people of power and they can systematically fleece and change everything in their plans.
“Media content from economically, politically, and military dominant parts of the world find audiences in less developed regions”These superior countries even with its relatively small population find audiences in less developed regions and the globalization and imperialization of the media The more you have multicultural characteristics the more global potential you might have because this have amazing power to shift people’s opinion. As movies and new station popular worldwide all these contribute in the globalization of these media contents. As we are being expoosed to.Media holds a significant role, informing audiences about what happens currently in the world, and media has the power in constructing public belief and attitude and changing societies. There is a large effect of media covering issues like climate and enviromental changea and developments economically. Findings in these issues reveals the process in which the media shapes public debate in terms of forming agendas and projecting and concentrating public interest on certain issues. As an example, a work on disability issue revealed that the relationship between bad media covering people with disability and a hardening attitudes on them. AND saw that media also drastically limits the information with which audiences understanding of these issues other evidence of the way in which media coverage operates in limiting possibilities of society changes or variations.
Finally, implications posed for communications and policy and how both the old and recent media may help.We can see how the public debate is formed by ideological battles relating and suggesting to strong grouo of individuals in society, but in what way does this highlighting of ‘preferred’ opinions and interpretations influencing audiences example in 2011 the Glasgow University, the media group underwent a study of United Kindgom news coverage, attitudes and beliefs about disability and persons who are disabled (Briant et al., 2011).
It had an analyze over comparable periods in 2004-05 and 2010-11, to track and notice changes in style, content or volume in media coverage of policy change relating to disability benefits and, in emphasizing media reactions to the new changes made by UK coalition government. This work was complemented by an audience reception study to evaluate how reporting was being negotiated by members of the public in terms of beliefs, perceptions and psychological way sand further to explore the major trends. (https://jspp.psychopen.
eu/article/view/96/37)The news and info public receive from media owns the power of legitimizing and making the actions of the powerful passively accepted, and creating change at a collective and wide level, but also limits the freedom of though and shapes the as the media rulers want the behavior of persons who are exposed to bigger social change. It plays an accelerating role in the easing inside action in policies by repeating and supporting of media messages, and by the absence of suggested alternatives and molding opinions and behavior.The key for both of these is in the complex process of negotiation that in audiences receive messages that involves a range of factors including current and old media accounts, beliefs, knowledge and past experience, structural barriers and values. These may lead to attitudinal and therefore behavioral commitment, variation and changes, or may prevent these. It’s related to the role of public communications about climate change, for example, there is little point in driving the message home about behavioral change unless there is simpler easier, more efficient and supported solutions available to people from which they can see clearly the profits.
But media plays a significant role in not only legalizing certain actions, but in adding credibility. They can be used in also in adding confusion and fear into debates like climate change, and reducing commitment to the action. The media is the most potent way governments and its rulers can establish a dominance of specific message and goals.
But the complexity of the reception then builds the possibility of change in behavioral reactions of people.And media can completely change humanity’s ideas on a concept and in an unnoticed way.We can take transgender communities as an example they are no longer a secret one Before the modern internet age, trans people lived in complete isolation. Very limited information was shared between them and society, or between the medical and psychiatric professionals who they interact with. Very narrow was the number of people who knew transgender people and most of them never did see one in person on the street but from now in Usa and most of the western world you can notice their presence in any of societies activities. And this was a huge leap made by the help of media.
(https://www.huffingtonpost.com/quora/what-kind-of-impact-does_b_9592844.html)« Cultural imperialism » is a practice that works on enhancing and supporting a more powerful culture on a less popular or less desired culture. Extension of the influence or domination of the culture of one nation over others. Theories of cultural imperialism were developed by intellects and social scientists like Herbert Schiller, John Thompson, Rothkopf, cultural imperialism has a very effective influence in the international systems of power. We can notice easily the way in which public debate is formed by ideologies promoted in the media broadcasts and have a wide impact but is cultural imperialism the only way the west globalized its cultures on other cultures.
And we can notice very clearly how media has an unbreakable authority over the governments and the nations. And in forming and introducing new ways of living worldwide and promoting cultures over other ones.References bibliography :https://en.oxforddictionaries.
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).Downing, ,. J., Mohammadi, A., & Annabelle Sreberny-Mohammadi (1995). Questioning the https://jspp.psychopen.eu/article/view/96/37.
Jameson, F. (1986).Orientalism. (1978). Edward Said. New York: Pantheon Books.Robert Young, W. M.
(n.d.).rothkopf. (1997). In praise of cultural imperialism? Rothkopf. (1997). In praise of cultural imperialism? Said, E.
(n.d.).Schiller, H. (1976). Communication and Cultural Domination. Sreberny-Mohammadi, D. a.
(n.d.).Tomlinson, J. (n.d.
).Tomlinson, J. (1991). Cultural Imperialism: A Critical Introduction.