# COVENANT (ppg) 0.79 – 2.73 specific gravity (s.g) 49

COVENANT
UNIVERSITY, CANAANLAND, OTA.

PETROLEUM
ENGINEERING LABORATORY

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DEPARTMENT
OF PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

EXPERIMENT 1:
DENSITY

A REPORT BY:
FAYOMI OLUWASEUN OLUWASEYI

15CN03252

PET 327

20th
JANUARY 2018

ABSTRACT

The
density of any fluid is directly related to the amount and average specific
gravity of the solids in the system. The starting point of pressure control is
the control of mud density. The weight of a column of mud in the hole necessary
to balance formation pressure is the reference point from which all pressure
control calculations are based. The density of the mud is very essential
inorder to maintain the pressure exerted by the static and dynamic of the mud
column. The main apparatus used to determine the density of a mud is known as
the mud balance. This process explains the various processes involved in using
mud balance to measure the weight of the mud.

TABLE OF
CONTENTS

1.     TITLE

2.     ABSTRACT

3.     INTRODUCTION

4.     EQUIPMENT (with diagrams)

5.     PROCEDURES

6.     CALIBRATION

7.     MUD MIXING

8.     DENSITY MEASUREMENT

9.     RESULTS

10.
CONCLUSION

11.
RECOMMENDATION

12.
REFERENCES

INTRODUCTION

In order for us to determine the density or
weight of a given mud, we can use a mud balance. In our experiment a 4-scale
metal mud balance was used. The mud balance is being made in a way that the
fixed volume cup at one end of the beam is balanced by a fixed counter weight
at the opposite end, with a sliding weight rider free to move along the
graduated scale and calibrated to read directly the density of the mud in four
scale ranges, density also affects drilling mud because of the the mud balance
used which are;

6.5- 23.0 lbs/gal (ppg)

0.79 – 2.73 specific gravity (s.g)

49 – 179 lbs/ft3

340 – 1190 psi/1000ft

EQUIPMENT

1.
4- scale mud balance

Fig.1: 4-scale mud
balance with carrying case

2.
Hamilton beach mixer

Fig. 2: Electric
stand mixer

3.
Measuring cylinder

4.
Weighing balance

5.
Spatula

6.
Syringe

PROCEDURES

CALIBRATION

1.
Remove the lid from the cup,
and  fill the cup with water.

2.
Replace the lid and wipe it dry

3.
Set the rider on 8.3 ppg or 1.0
s. g (density of water). Add or remove lead shot from the shotwell until instrument
is in balance.

MUD MIXING

70g of bentonite in 700mlof water

Sample 1: 35g mixed in 350ml of water

Sample 2: sample 1 + 10g of barite

1.
Measure appropriate amount of
bentonite and barite.

2.
In the mixing cup, pour the
measured amount of water.

3.
Turn on the mixer and carefully

4.
Mix until it is completely
homogenous.

5.
For Sample 2, add barite and
repeat step 4.

MEASUREMENT

1.
Place the mud balance base (in
its carrying case) on a  level surface

2.
Ensure the cup is clean and
dry, remove the lid and fill with the mud being tested.

3.
Replace the lid on the cup.
Make sure that some mud is expelled through the hole in the cup as this shows
that the cup is full and will remove any trapped air or gas.

4.
Place finger on the hole in the
lid while cleaning and wiping off the mud from the outside of the cup

5.
Place the balance on the knife
edge and move the rider along the arm until the cup and arm are balanced.

6.
Take the readings if the mud
weight

7.
Repeat this for sample 2.

RESULTS

MUD
DENSITY

Ppg

lb/ft3

s.g

psi/1000ft

Sample
1(WATER AND BENTONITE)

8.7

65

1.04

450

Sample
2(with barite, WATER AND BENTONITE)

8.9

66.55

1.11

460.05

CONCLUSION

At the end of this experiment, I have come
to the conclusion that this method is very accurate in the measurement of mud
density and also barite can be used to increase mud density.

PRECAUTION

1.
I ensured that I poured the
water first into the mixer to reduce the amount of lumps in the mud.

2.
I ensured that I removed the
trapped air in the cup before taking my measurement of density.

3.
I ensured accurate measurement
of the mud density.

4.
I avoided error due to parallax
when taking my reading at the lower meniscus.

5.
I ensured that the cup was
completely wiped before making sure it was balanced.

6.
I also ensured that I was
wearing the appropriate safety equipment the experiment.

Also, from my results, it shows that
solution 2 (with barite) is denser than solution 1 and this is because of the
addition of barite to the solution as barite is a weighting material.

RECOMMENDATION

I recommend that this method be encouraged
as the mud balance is a fast, easy and accurate method of measuring mud
weight/density. Also, barite is a suitable weighting material that can be used
to increase the density if mud.

REFERENCES

Max
R. Annis, Martin V. Smith (1974); EXXON COMPANY, USA (August 1996). Drilling
Fluids Technology

King
Fahd University of Petroleum & Minerals (April, 2003). PETE 203: Drilling
Engineering Laboratory Manual

FANN
(2012). Model 821 Rig Laboratory Instruction Manual

Baker
Hughes (2006). Drilling Fluids Reference Manual

Engr.
Seteyeobot (2018). Drilling Mud Manual.

T.beurgoynejr, k.k, applied drilling engineering

Equipment,
O.T (2007) instruction manual

.Hamilton beach mixers