CONCEPTS OF STATE, POLITICS, GOVERNMENT, GOVERNANCE AND ADMINISTRATION I. What is Political Science? A. It’s etymological meaning POLITICS – The word Politics comes from the Greek word “polis” meaning “city-state, and was defined by Aristotle in his book “The Politics” as in every city state there is a kind of association and that man by nature is a political animal. – Politics is also the means of organizing collective human activity.
– The essence of social existence is Politics and that 2 or more men interacting with one another are invariably involved in a political relationship. According to Dahl, Politics arises when people living together in associations and which involve conflicts, and subject to some kind of power, ruler-ship and/or authority. – According to Froman, It is the distribution of advantages and disadvantages among people through interaction with each other to satisfy their different wants and needs. SCIENCE – From the Latin scientia meaning knowledge, it is the systematic way of gaining knowledge thru scientific methods, and a body of knowledge gained thru research.B.
POLITICAL SCIENCE – The study of the state in all it’s elements, aspects and relationships. – A branch of social science which deals with the origin, organization of the government, the theories and practice of the state. – According to Robert Dahl, it is a systematic study of politics.
– A systematic analysis to discover in confusing detail whatever principles may exist of wider and more general significance. C. Six approaches in studying Political science/Political Puzzles (Kay Lawson) 1.Studying Political Behavior – focuses on how individuals act politically, based on Behavioralist approach. Ex; Why do people join political strikes and what behavior is displayed during these srikes. 2. Studying Political Structure – A structural-functional approach, focuses on important political roles established in society, there functions that they perform, and how did these roles and their influences be carried out.
Ex: The legislative branch of the gov’t formulates and makes the laws , while the president of the executive branch expresses and administers these laws. . Studying Political Phenomena – phenomenological in approach, focuses on the study of the causes of change and their corresponding effects in the political system, phenomenological changes are any event that has an effect on a political situation, events that change a political system. Ex: Death of Ninoy Aquino, sparked the EDSA revolution. 4.
Studying Political Ideas – uses the Philosophical approach, focuses on the meaning of political life, deals with political theory and ideologies. Ex: Liberalism vs Conservatism, laisses faire vs Dictatorship 5.Studying Political Documents – the art and practice of reading and deciphering political documents, study of laws, declarations, or any written document that is a result of the practice of politics. Ex: the study of the Philippine Constitution 6.
Studying Political Future – studies the effects of politics to the society in general, and the future effects of any political decision or decree. Ex: what are the positive and negative effects of the clean air act to the environment, the society, the culture and even the economy of the Philippines? D. The Paradigm of a Political SystemE. Areas of Fields of Political Science • Political Theory/Philosophy – is political thought which explains the political ideas and beliefs of a group of people and the body of concepts they live by in a certain period. It expresses the moral/ethical standards the government may adopt to run public affairs. Ex: the dictatorship/authoritarianistic rule of Marcos under the Martial Law • Public Law – refers to the constitutional and legal principles governing and arising from the relations between sovereign states, between different levels of government and individuals.Ex: Public Office is Public Trust • International Relations, International Law and International Organization – study of foreign policy of nation-states in their mutual relationship on the different faces: geographical, technologically, economic, demographic, psychological and political which contribute shaping and formation of such policy.
Ex: UN, ASEAN, APEC, VFA, etc. • Government – is a distinct branch of study dealing with the government set upof a state on both national and local levels. EX: UK’s Monarchical Gov’t. Comparative Government – seeks the similarities and differences among states regards to their executive, legislative, judiciary bodies, constitution and laws, administrative organizations, political parties and interest groups, policies and processes. Ex: Democratic US vs Communistic USSR • Public Administration are the techniques, methods of managing and administering government in the ff. phases: administration organization, personnel administration, financial or fiscal administration and management of good public relations. Ex: Smile Campaign of the Civil service ommission. • Political Dynamics – concerned with the interplay of different societal forces that influence political decision and action , forces eg: economic, social, political, moral/religious, environmental, educational, and cultural • Government and Business – modern political economy, wherein it focuses on the way the government does business or corporate functions which affect the national economy.
Eg: VAT, Privatization campaign • Legislative and Legislation – focuses on the roles and fields of the legislative process and legislative body itself.And how to make laws. Eg: How a bill becomes a law? F.
Political Science and Other Social Sciences • History “History without Political Science has no fruit and Political Science without History has no root. ” • Economics the allocation of scarce resources to attain optimum satisfaction of society’s unlimited wants. • Sociology social problems also are equated to being political problems. • Psychology politics based on human mind and psyche • Anthropology the state evolved from family or simple to complex organizations. Geography foreign relations and policy making due to boundaries and global resources • Philosophy ideologies and political thoughts and ideas G. Methods in Studying Political Science • Empirical or Observation Method – wherein by observation, the scientist see the cause and it’s effects.
Ex: one vote can affect a particular political system. • Historical Method – knowing he root or the background origins and the evolution of politics/political question • Comparative – contrasting or even comparing the similarities and differences of each aspect of a political puzzle/question • AnalyticalMethod – studying the elements and their significance, how do they operate, answering the questions of the How’s and the Why’s. II. The Concept and Definition of the STATE A. What is a State? The state is a community of persons more or less numerous, permanently occupying a definite portion of territory, independent of internal and external control and possessing an organized government to which the great body of inhabitants render habitual obedience. – Garner B.
The Four Elements of the State People – refers to an aggregate of individuals of both sexes who live together as a community despite racial or cultural differences. – They owe allegiance or habitual obedience to a single government despite of their race, language, cultural variety, a community forming a body politic – Population is more or less numerous, hardly a minimum or maximum number of members, they should be numerous enough to be self-sufficient and yet small enough to be effectively governed. May be called subjects, citizens and etc. Territory – includes the land, terra, the water, fluvial, and air, aerial. This is where the people permanently live a fixed portion of the of the globe and definite in nature, should not be floating one so as to establish and identify the limits within which it may command and enforce it’s will and sovereignty, in other words it’s physical and political boundaries.
• Government – the governing power of the state, a collective name for the agency or institution through which the will of the state is formulated (legislative), expressed(executive), and carried out/realized (judiciary). An institution or aggregate of institutions by which an independent society makes and carries out those rules of action which are necessary to enable men to live in a social state which are imposed upon by the people forming that society by those who possess the power or authority of prescribing them – Supreme Court, Philippines. NOTE: Administration is the body of persons charged with the duty of governance. The Distinctions between State and Government: A.The government is just a part or an element of a state.
B. The state is permanent while the government changes in form and structure from time to time. C. No State will exist without a government, but a government can existence doesn’t mean a state exists. D. State is an ideal person or principle a government is just an agency of the state.
• Sovereignty – is the power to command and enforce obedience, the power to which legally speaking all interest are practically subject and all will is subordinate. supreme, absolute and uncontrollable power of state over it’s governed. Two Aspects of Sovereignty a. Internal Sovereignty- the power of the state to command over all persons within the limits of its territory and to regulate and control all things and properties within it’s boundaries through laws and appropriate agencies b. External Sovereignty – freedom of the state from external or foreign control or even interference, also called independence.Note: none absolute (external) for it is subject to limitations imposed by membership in the family of nations and other limitations imposed by agreed upon treaties. By Source and Intent • Legal Sovereignty – the powers to make laws exercised by legislative body and electorate to a certain degree under initiative and referendum. • Political Sovereignty – the final source of power which belongs to the people, the power and authority to govern being derived from them.
Characteristics of Sovereignty 1.Permanence – its exists as long as the state exists 2. Perpetuity – lives within the state 3. Continuity 4. Exclusiveness – only the state exercises this element 5. Absoluteness – generally unlimited unless the state consents to such limitations 6.
All-Comprehensiveness it covers all persons and things within its territory subject to exceptions which the state has voluntarily yielded. 7. Unity – it is indivisible there can’t be 2 or more equal sovereigns in the same state. . Inalienability – remains within the state cannot be bartered, transferred, delegated to anyone w/o putting an end to it however it’s exercise of sovereignty itself may be delegated. Nation – comprises of people bound together by common attraction and repulsion into a living organism possessed of common impulse, intelligence and aspiration destined appropriately to have common history, common fate, A group of men who have become amalgamated into an essential ethnic unity through long association.
STATE |NATION | |Political and legal in concept |Racial and ethnic in concept, nearly akin to people | |State has 4 elements that it needs to exists |May have these elements and may also lack them | |A single state may hold/embrace different nations |Nations may embrace states or no states at all | |In a state there are always a nation |A nation exists doesn’t mean a state exists | C. Theories of the Origin of the State • Divine Right Theory – the state exists as a creation of god, governed and ruled by him, a ruler is a representative or agent of god governing by direct ordination or divine revelation and that, rulers/kings are given absolute power and that they can do no wrong, basis of the monarchical government. Necessity Theory – the state was formed by man’s desire and wants and man’s inability to produce everything he needed, so he entered into inter-dependence with other dependents to supply each other with one had and the other lacked, and vice versa. • Force Theory – states came into being out of conquests and wars, strong leaders/nations used force, coercion, might by sword and shield to consolidate there territories and conquest into one large holding/state. • Social Contract Theory – the state began through social contacts by men who live in a state of nature in order to have peace and order, men came together to establish peace and settle conflicts, general will vs. anarchy.Forming a civil society were all member have a part and duty to perform.
• Natural Theory – the state was a natural institution, and not an abstract nor artificial being it unifies citizens/men so they can survive, and become self-sufficient, an have the capacity to grow a full and civilized life. • Matriarchal/Patriarchal/Kin Theory – The state arose from process of evolution and it evolved from the smallest unit of society, the family. [pic] • Instinctive Theory – the state was created through men’s natural inclinations towards political associations, man as a social being associated with other men for protection, companionship, security, and self-preservation. Economic Theory – the state developed because of men’s economic wants, man in isolation cannot get him all things he wanted/needed thus by associating himself with others and with an exchange or barter of goods, commodities and services he is able to share and exchange his needs/wants with others and share and exchange resources, to fulfill these needs/wants.
• Historical and Evolution Theory – the state was not a single result fact nor a result of the above mentioned theories but was a product of a long evolutionary process from simple to a more complex form of political-economic-societal structure. -tsuzuki- Sources: Kay Lawson Human Polity Hector S.De Leon’s Constitution and Government Agnes Rivera’s Constitution and Government Florentino Ayson’s Fundamentals of Political Science ———————– The none political environment, these are the non-political factors that influence the behavior and attitudes of the citizens and the authorities FEEDBACK FEEDBACK The members of the polity – the political culture and patterns of political socialization. FEEDBACK INPUTS demands/supports expressed via individuals, organizations or political/ even interest parties Conversion of Inputs by the authority otherwise known as the government. OUTPUTS eg: laws, policies, decisions, information, etc. Family Clan Tribe Nation State