Computer on multiple displays. By combining technical drafting with

Aided Design / Computer Aided Manufacturing (CAD / CAM) is the hardware and
software systems that can be used to design a process. Engineers use CAD / CAM
tools at various stages of product development. For beginning, construct the designs
with blueprints and then actually create or assemble physical products and
components with computer-controlled equipment.


/ CAM is a major part of many physical manufacturing processes. Widely used in
metal processing and industrial manufacturing. This technology not only
provides conceptual planning for planning CAD / CAM software for construction,
construction, but also for other areas of physical building templates.
Well-planned CAD / CAM interfaces can help engineers understand the processes that
they create and work more efficiently.

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The CAD / CAM software typically
includes 3D models that facilitate the display of more contract structure
elements on multiple displays. By combining technical drafting with 3D, the CAD
/ CAM interface becomes more qualify and capable with all engineering sector.


Computer-aided manufacturing (CAM)
refers to the use of computer-controlled machines. CAM is widely used in all sector
of industrial, not just electronic products. CAM improves manufacturing and
production efficiency by increasing production speed, raw material consistency
and more accurate machining accuracy, reducing waste and energy.


CAM uses computer-driven
manufacturing processes to automate management, material tracking, planning and
shipping. CAM also implements advanced productivity tools such as simulation
and optimization to leverage expertise. Moreover, CAM is often associated with
CAD for more enhanced and streamlined manufacturing, efficient design and
superior mechanical automation.


As a process, CAM is used after Computer Aided Design (CAD).
Models designed with CAD are sometimes used as CAM inputs. Therefore, it is
called CAD-CAM. The features of the combination software divided into two main



this process, the computer delivers information for production planning as
well as management. This may include:
§  Computer Aided Process Planning (CAPP)
§  Computer Assisted NC Part Programming
§  Computerized Machinability Data System 
§  Work Standards Development
§  Inventory and Production Planning


the process, the computer is used to manage and control the physical
operations of the manufacturing plant. This may include:
§  Shop Floor Controlling
§  Process Monitoring and Controlling
§  Inventory Controlling
§  Production Delivery Controlling


The machine for CAM needs programming. If the product is
designed using computer-aided design (CAD), computer software can analyze the
drawing and create a control program. This can save hours of manual programming
time. This link between CAD and CAM is called Computer Integrated Manufacturing






2.0       Introduction of Computer Numerical
Control (CNC)


machines in the CAM use Computer Numerical Control (CNC). CNC as machine
that operated by numerical (digital) control, in which the software program is
specified to control the object. These numbers
provide all the commands that need. The language of CNC machining called
G- code, is written to control the various machine behaviors such as speed,
feed rate, coordination and so on. These are
usually stored as programs in the machine.

CNC machining is the pre-programmed computer software that
determines the manufacturing process of the industrial tools and machinery and
its fully run automated. The 2D or 3D CAD drawing and dimensions
for a given part are set into place with computer-aided design (CAD) software
and then converted into an actual finished product with computer-aided
manufacturing (CAM) software. After the procedure is inputted, the operator
carries on the trial operation, to make sure the code does not appear any

The position control in CNC machining is
determined by the open-loop or closed-loop system. In the former, the signal
runs single direction between the controller and the motor. In a closed-loop
system, the controller can receive the feedback and making error correction
possible. Therefore, closed-loop systems can correct for speed and position
that irregularities.

The movement is usually directed to the X
and Y axes in CNC machining. The process can be run through open-loop control
once the force and speed are minimal. However, closed-loop control is necessary
to ensure the speed, consistency and accuracy required for industrial applications
such as metal products.


Below are the few types of CNC Machines that can be
applied in marine industries and ship technology: –

CNC Mills


Plasma Cutters

Water Jet Cutters


3.0       Linking
Between CAD/CAM and CNC Machine


CAD is a software that helps
programmers draw and design products, while CAM is a software that helps
operators run CNC machines. CAD and CAM work together as a system. This means
that drawings made in CAD will be automatically configured in CAM. Before
integrating a CAD / CAM system, CAM must recreate the CAD system-generated
model to create the program. Now, once the machining operation is specified by
the operator, the CAM automatically creates the CNC program.

When using a CAD / CAM system,
programmers can do all the programming on the computer and operator can run a
simulation on the screen to prove that the program is working properly. Also
download the verified program to the CNC machine. The operator now can specify
the desired machining operation and the CAM system integrates these operations
into the CNC program.

In addition, the link between CAD /
CAM software and CNC machines increases productivity by:

convert design into machine controller instructions on the machine.

the program can be modified to other jobs with similar specifications.

The process
flow chart linked between CAD/CAM and CNC.

4.0       Advantage
and Disadvantage of CAD/CAM




to reduce material wastage.

More expensive than manual

Automatic specification checking.

to motivate quality.

Speeds up production.

Take a long time to write the
program to operate

Software flexibility and
Design flexibility. (CAM
able to machine difficult shapes.)

Software Complexity.



5.0       Advantage
and Disadvantage of CNC




Low maintenance
and more safety.

expensive than manually operated machines.


Mistakes related with part

skilled or trained people can operate CNC machines unlike manual lathes and milling
machines which need skilled engineers.

workers are required to operate the CNC machine compared to manually operated
machines. Unemployment may result due to investment in CNC machine tools.

surface finishing.






6.0       Applications
that controlled by Computer-aided Manufacturing

and plasma cutting


punching or drilling





and milling


7.0       Applications
that controlled by CNC Machining in Ship Technology


Construction of

The hull is the foundation of all ships. The CNC machine generates a precise, uniform mold through electronic
programming and is tested before an error occurs.
CNC machining offers
versatility that enables manufacturers to use a wide range of materials.

Hull and Deck

Forming hull and deck structures is just the
beginning. The structures must be properly connected without any gaps, uneven
lines or movements. It may be a difficult process to determine the correct
alignment of the connections with these structures “free”.
5 axis CNC machines can easily and efficiently
trim excess material in even the largest structures while perfectly matching
all the parts.

Ribs and Stringers

Ribs and stringers are wood lengths that form
the “bone” of the hull. These components enhance the hull’s
strength and help it retain its shape.
Stringers and ribs often require mass
production of templates and take up storage space through work-in-process
CNC allow for wood processing, optimizing
throughout while accommodating the movement and placement of non-linear


yachts and sailing often have the same furniture as luxury apartments and
apartments. A typical layout may include galley kitchen, luxurious
wrap-around seats and beautiful wood cabinets.
these projects and more can easily create a CNC machine. The system
accommodates complex designs ranging from clean lines to wood, stone and
various materials.















8.0       Conclusion


In 21st century, CAD/CAM software helps the engineers to complete their task
or project easily and efficiency. Computer-Aided Manufacturing (CAM) is a term
used to describe the use of a computerized system to control the operation of a
manufacturing plant. Its helps to improve the time to market and create precise
dimensions as well. Likewise, CNC
machining also brings the marine industry with unparalleled levels of
efficiency and precision.