Communication seen as verbal or non-verbal additionally it can

Communication is at the heart
of everything that you do as a teacher, whether with learners, colleagues or
other professionals and is a skill that will develop throughout your career (Machin et al, 2016).

Communication
is a complicated medium involving a source and an individual receiver or group
of receivers. Communication can be seen as the transaction of information and this
in turn can be seen as verbal or non-verbal additionally it can be visual
communication, for example reading, the teacher may have produced electronic
media or printed handouts containing key information, the teachers body
language should match that of the verbal as it can convey non-verbal
information. For the transaction of information to be successful it also relies
on the receiver to have the necessary skills and motivation to absorb the
information being received. This conveyance of information is also interpreted
as the channel, key to this channel is that it acts as a two way channel
allowing the sender or source to send information to the receiver and thus the
receiver providing feedback via the channel to the sender therefore provoking
an active interaction.

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 A number of communication models have been
suggested that are aligned with transmission centred theory, to gain an insight
we can consider three varying and progressive models of communication namely:
The Linear model of communication, the interactional model of communication and
the continuum of interpersonal communication.

The
most basic of communication models is The Linear model of communication
conceptualised by Shannon and Weaver (1949), the model is comprised of several
components namely: the sender, the message and the receiver this communication
takes place in the channel. Within this model the channel can suffer with interference
known as noise, briefly noted as physical (external noise), physiological,
psychological (internal noise) and semantic noise. Although when the Linea
model was first conceived it was held in high regard, it has since seen to be
flawed in that the assumption that there is a start and finish with the sender
projecting the message to the receiver thus the presumption of the message
being one way and the receiver being passive. Considering this criticism the
notion of feedback was introduced bringing with it two directional
communication, this conception was that of the interactional model of
communication from Wilbur Shramm (1954). Shramm believed that communication was
two directional, sender to receiver and back again, this communication can be
seen as conversation providing interaction between teacher and learner, as an
alternative to Shannon and Weavers’ linear approach to communication this
circular model suggests an active ongoing communication, Shramms model primarily
characterises feedback within this two way approach and can be defined as
responses to people, their messages or both, feedback may also be construed as
internal and external with Internal feedback being deemed to be when assessing
one’s own communication and likewise external feedback can be that which is
received from other people or learners.

Starting
to understand that communication is a complex undertaking we can consider, the
continuum of interpersonal communication model this is notable by two people,
for example teacher and learner who simultaneously send and receive messages. Gerald
Miller and Mark Steinberg (1975) considered that not all human communication is
interpersonal, whilst West (2006) considers interpersonal communication as an
occurrence that takes place with or without intention.

Three
of the major underpinning principles of communication are seen to be that “Interpersonal communication is unavoidable” “Interpersonal
communication is irreversible” “Interpersonal communication is rule governed.”
West (2006).

In
simple terms interpersonal communication is unavoidable, “you cannot not
communicate” Watzlawick, Beavin and Jackson (1967). Therefore as hard as we try
we cannot prevent someone from making meaning from our behaviour it is
unavoidable West (2006). Interpersonal communication is irreversible West
(2016) offers that once communication has been made it cannot be retracted this
can be verbal or non-verbal communication very much emphasizing the need to be
self-aware when delivering course content, assessment or even on a one to one
with a learner. Interpersonal communication is rule governed, it has been noted by Hartley
(1999) that the rules of communication, whilst being unwritten, continue
between interactions and that they are dependent on a number of factors and can
vary on account of familiarity and cultural factors, for example. The rules
associated with interactional discourses can vary considerable and the varying
rules will be applied in line with the varying context of the discourse (Machin
et al., 2014).