"Clones are genetically identical individuals," says Harry Griffin, PhD.(https://www.webmd.com/healthy-aging/features/cloning- facts-fiction#1 in 1885, cloningwas first ever demonstrated by Sir Hans Adolf Eduard Driesch. At that time, he showedthat when two-celled sea urchin embryos are separated, they were still able to grow intoa complete sea urchin, meaning that a single embryo has its own complete set ofgenetic instructions and is able to grow into an organism.
The research andexperiments of cloning carried on and was not publicly interested up until Dolly thesheep was created by somatic cell nuclear transfer. The nuclear of an egg cell isremoved and another nucleus taken from the cell of another individual is substituted intothe egg cell. While embryonic cell is ready to active any gene, an adult cell has to resetto an embryonic state. This process often come undone, resulting in a failure in thedevelopment of the embryo. As a result, the appearance of Dolly has raised aninternational sensation and became a debatable topic worldwide.During the discussion between governments representatives in December 2001 held bythe General Assembly of the United Nations, there was general agreement that thereproductive cloning of human beings should be prohibited by an international ban.However, the Universal Declaration on the Human Genome and Human Rights, 1997(UDHGHR) acknowledges that research on genetics could have profound potentials forimproving the health quality of humankind.
P.B. Desai, an Indian epigraphist, once said, “Embryonic stem cells, which holdspromise of cure of any organ, is but a slow move towards immortality,” and in May 15,2013, researchers at Oregon Health & Science University reported that they havecreated embryonic stem cells through cloning. The donor DNA came from an 8-month-old with a rare genetic disease. Scientists used this process called therapeutic cloningwhich stem cells are stimulated to divide and grown in a Petri dish.(http://edition.cnn.
com/2013/10/30/health/cloning-fast- facts/index.html) Indeed, cloningcan be used to make desired changes in the genetic makeup of individuals in order tointroduce positive traits and to eliminate the negative ones. Human beings can takeadvantage of cloning as a backup system if their body organs malfunction and need tobe replaced. For example, a new technology has allowed scientists from MassachusettsGeneral Hospital and Harvard Medical School to grow a full-sized human heart fromstem cells in the near future.
The heart of the donor will be taken out of the body andplaced inside a detergent solution to remove organ cells that might cause an immuneresponse in the recipient. Then, the scientists insert adult skin cells and turn them intostem cells. The heart will be infused with a nutrient solution and allowed to grow beforebeing set inside the recipient’s body. 1 However, the research progress on therapeutic1 https://www.popsci.
com/scientists-grow- transplantable-hearts- with-stem- cells2cloning in humans has been slow due to the technical challenges and ethicalcontroversy.Furthermore, researches on genetics might be highly benefited from cloningtechnologies. “Discovering these measurable molecules of toxicity, we hope to presentother serious adverse reactions that are caused by testing drugs in animals, with thehope of bringing safer drugs to patients.” says Gabriela Cezar, assistant professor ofanimal science at the University of Wisconsin-Madison. Human stem cell research ispromising in testing the effects of biologicals, chemicals, and drugs in the most relevantspecies – humans. Such studies could lead to fewer, less costly, and better designedhuman clinical trials to achieve more specific diagnosis and more effective therapies forpatients. However, the usage of embryonic stem cells for drug testing is still a relativelynew concept, and according to some scientists, more researches should be carried outbefore confirming that the method is reliable.(https://www.
technologyreview.com/s/409191/testing-drugs- with-stem- cells/)On the other hand, the question about the ethics of has been raised and is constantlydebated worldwide. The Director-General of the World Health Organization (WHO)considered human cloning as “ethically unacceptable as it would violate some of thebasic principles which govern medically assisted reproduction.
These include respectfor the dignity of the human being and the protection of the security of human geneticmaterial” (WHO 1997)Many of the immediate condemnations of any possible human cloning following IanWilmut’s cloning of an adult sheep claimed that it would violate moral or human rightswhich are the right to own an identity. According to Dr Dan W. Brock of BrownUniversity, cloning would undermine our sense of individuality or uniqueness, destroythe valuable meaning of human beings and our "irreplaceable value”.
Even with thesame genes, two individuals, for example homozygous twins, are completely distinctand not identical. A person’s traits, characteristics and life are not only the product oftheir genome but also their surroundings. Every day, humans are in contact withdifferent chemicals surrounded us and some of which has altered the behavior of ourgenes. For instance, the chemical called methyl floating around our body can attachitself to the DNA inhibit or deny the activity of a gene, blocking it from producingproteins. Other life events can bring about DNA methylation such as diet, illnesses,ageing, smoking and etc.
A recent carried out by Professor Tim Spector, head of twinresearch at King's College, London and his colleagues shown that identical twins havedifferent tolerances to pain and the genes which determined whether or not they get adisease are often switched on in a twin and off in another. Although homozygous twinsbegin life with the same genomes, over times differences in physical, personalcharacteristics will develop with distinct personal relationships, life history and life