Cithlalli RamirezMr. SandquistPhysics Honors19 January 2018Big Bang Theory: Facts and FlawsThere have been many theories created by different scientists that have allowed the world to gain knowledge of unknown phenomena throughout history but the Big Bang Theory has to be one of the most important. What began as close observations of the universe’s structure developed into a fundamental idea that contributed to the understanding of the world’s creation. While this theory is heavily supported by firm evidence, certain features that open it to revision are intriguing. The most concrete evidence for the Big Bang theory consists of the Hubble-type expansion, the calculation of the cosmic microwave background, and the profusion of light elements. These are occasionally referred to as the three pillars of the Big Bang Theory (New).In 1929, American astronomer, Edwin Hubble accumulated data on a variety of galaxies and graphed them. He outlined the data so the distance to the galaxy was following the horizontal axis and the velocity of its withdrawal was following the vertical axis. Hubble identified a continuing relationship between the two quantities, a constant ratio of the distance to the galaxy to the velocity of its withdrawal. This proportionality is referred to as the Hubble’s constant and can be derived from the slope of the line in Hubble’s graph (Gilman).While Hubble’s constant puts the relationship between the velocity and distance of a galaxy’s withdrawal in a term, Hubble’s law explains how this relates to the expansion of the universe (Hubble’s). Hubble’s law explains this in a mathematical equation that is the velocity of a galaxy away from us is equal to Hubble’s constant times the distance to the galaxy (Hubble’s). One can also view this idea through the balloon analogy. A balloon is blown up enough to mark a number of spots, which represent galaxies (Gilman). The balloon inflates, representing the expansion of the universe, and each spot gets farther away from each other (Gilman). Additionally, the distance from a spot to any other on the same side of the balloon grows faster the further away it is from the other spot (Gilman).Galaxies are traveling away from Earth in all orientations because they are retreating from each other (Gilman). The explanation is the farther away galaxies are from one another, the faster they withdraw, without preferred direction, position, or “center” (Gilman). This idea and the model the balloon analogy creates of the universe further proves the universe’s long questioned and continuing expansion and implies that these galaxies were once close together. This suggests they were once in the same position meaning there was a time when the universe had not begun to expand, the beginning of the universe.