Children are basically formed by their parents until adulthood (Baumrind, 1971 as cited in Aiwan, Bibi, Chaudhry, & Tariq, 2013). ” Parental and child relationships are complex, it encompasses the behaviors and attitudes that work separately and collectively to influence the outcomes of children and generate emotional bonds where parental behavior is expressed”. Parenting refers to aspects of raising children other than biological contact. A parenting style is a psychological construct representing standard strategies that parents use in their child rearing. Each one carries different characteristics and brings about different reactions to the ASD child. Parenting styles also refer to the normative patterns of behavior and tactics that parents used to socialize and control their children. (Wentzel & Russell, 2009). Parenting style is explained by its dimensions or components: parental responsiveness or warmth and parental demandingness or control.
Parents play an important role in shaping children’s lives by providing the perfect and appropriate education. Parents are also examples of children. What parents do, will be their part in the process of forming behavior and personal character. When combined, the three parenting styles: Authoritarian, Authoritative and Permissive (Baumrind, 1971 as cited in Aiwan, Bibi, Chaudhry, & Tariq, 2013). Later on, Maccoby and Martin added the neglectful parenting style. The first style is parents who always shape the behavior of children, but are less sensitive to the feelings and desires of the children are called the Authoritarian Styles. This style of care is easily understood by the term “iron nails” or the “too strict”. It is more about setting rigid rules and guidelines. Parents with an authoritarian style have a high expectation of their children, but give only a little feedback and mercy. The second parenting style is Permissive or “too soft”. The good thing is that they are parents who are very concerned about any child’s response, pay attention to the child’s desires and give them the freedom to do their own work. (Greenwood, 2010). This style of care is the result of the study showing that the average parents in Malaysia are parents who use this kind of education method.
They are less proactive in educating and more responding to the developments and what the child has shown. “Research reveals that children who have too soft or good parents may have difficulty with self-control due to lack of supervision and regulation, this can be seen they tend to an arrogance that interferes with the development of proper relationships” (Kimberly Kapko, 2007). The third parenting style is Authoritative or “Perfect”. Parents consider children as a unit in families with their own opinions and desires, yet at the same time knowing that they are not yet able to self-reliance. The difference in comparison with previous styles is that parents act proactively and urge the children to change towards what they want while at the same time maintaining a concerned attitude towards what the child wants and what they think of something.
This is a reaction and a desire. They show support and care while monitoring and disciplining their children fairly. They are more likely to stand up for responsibility, get along with other people and are successful (Maccoby, 1992 as cited in Cherry, 2011).
Finally, the parenting style is “neglectful” the style, unconditional or uninvolved parents. It does not show a tendency and is responsive and it does not show love to their child and usually gives them severe penalties. Parents do not urge the child to change and do not care about the child’s feelings. Even the basic needs of children are often ignored.