CHAPTER warm temperate regions. CS also nowadays have become

 

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE
REVIEW

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2.1 Citrus Sinensis

               Citrus Sinensis (CS), or another names is sweet orange. It is different sour orange (C. aurantium) and mandarin orange (C. reticulata), which is come from the related species. CS is come from a small tree in the Rutaceae which is citrus family. CS is originated in southern China, where it has been cultivated for millennia. Today, CS is grown commercially worldwide in tropical, semi-tropical, and some warm temperate regions. CS also nowadays have become the most widely planted fruit tree in the world. This is because CS get a high interested regardless of age due to its sweetness.                               Citrus Sinensis is one of the world’s most popular fruit. It can be eaten fresh and also can be used for juice and jam. The CS tree is small, spiny tree, typically growing to 20 -30 ft (6.1-9.1 m). CS tree occasionally can reach heights up to 15-20 ft (4.6-6.1 m) or more. The CS Leaves are shiny, leathery and evergreen. The shape of the leaves range from elliptical to oblong to elliptic, and can up to 4 in (10.2 cm)for the long and have narrow wings on the petioles (leaf stems).

           

            Next, the twigs on many Citrus Sinensis cultivars are
thorny. CS blossoms are white and very fragrant. It arranged in clusters of 1
to 6. The skin of CS either rind or peel and it is contain numerous small oil
glands. The flesh or pulp of the CS is typically juicy and sweet. It divided
into 10 to 14 segments. The ranges CS in colour is three which is from yellow
to orange to red. Today, hundreds of cultivars have been developed. And they
are group into 4 major of categories by 2 types. Example is geography and
characteristics. The categories for geography is Mediterranean oranges and
Spanish oranges. For characteristics of CS is blood oranges and navel oranges.

            Fruits and tree of citrus Sinensis are susceptible to
various pests and pathogens. Example is the Mediterranean fruit fly (Ceratitis
capitata), numerous fungal leaf spots and blights. For the root rots is including
Cercospora, Colletotrichum Fusarium, Phytophthora, and many others. That
viruses can significantly reduce yields. (Bashir and et al)

 

2.1.1         
Benefits of Citrus Sinensis peel

           

            Citrus Sinensis (CS) peels are the
skins of fruits.Today, Citrus Sinensis peels have previously been known have
high levels of vitamin C and its associated health benefits, according to
Medicinal Herbs and Spices. However, after several scientists learn more about
Citrus Sinensis peels, it has become more solid and clear reason that they may
offer additional health benefits for humans.

            First, Citrus Sinensis (CS) can
prevent or reduces diabetes of human. According to NaturalNews.com, new
research published in the “Journal of Life Sciences” show that citrus
sinensis peel extract containing polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs). PMFs can
help prevent diabetes. The research indicated that citrus sinensis peel extracted
can reduced the level of serum triglycerides (TG), which both are known to
contribute to disorders such as diabetes and obesity. Therefore, this problem
can be solved by improved insulin sensitivity by using citrus peel extract.
From the research, citrus sinensis have more solid reason can improve insulin
sensitivity.

            Besides, citrus sinensis also can
prevent cholesterol. Citrus sinensis peels may contribute to lower risks of
heart disease. Some study found that the polymethoxylated flavones (PMFs),
compounds that can be found in citrus sinensis peels have the potential to
decrease the level of cholesterol when included in our diet. According to Prepared Foods Network, the
study found that “feeding hamsters a cholesterol-raising diet containing
1% PMFs lowered the amount of ‘bad’ LDL cholesterol by 32% to 40%.” Some
similar study in humans also revealed that citrus sinensis peel can lower the
levels of total cholesterol.

           

 

            Next is Citrus sinensis peel also
have antioxidants compouds. Citrus sinensis peels contains high levels of
antioxidants. As antioxidants, citrus sinensis peels may contribute to the
protection of our DNA and defend from cancer-causing damage. In citrus sinensis
peels, the amounts of antioxidants is greater than vitamin E according to
Medicinal Herbs & Spices. When used in their natural form, the high levels
of vitamin C found in citrus fruits will enhanced the antioxidant effects of
citrus sinensis peels. One that is located at citrus sinensis peel that have
antioxidants is Hesperidin. Hesperidin has antioxidant and
anti-inflammatory properties. Hesperidin also can act as a vasodilator, which may
be useful in Hypertension.

 

 

2.2
Hesperidin

 

            Hesperidin
is a bioflavonoid
glycoside that is commonly found in citrus sinensis peels and is a sugar-bound
form of the flavonoid hesperitin
to the body. Flavonoid hesperitin is mediates the benefits of hesperidin.
Example is an increase in circulation and possible brain protective effects. It
also known to mediate the action of the hesperidin in the body.

            Hesperidin name is actually derived from the word “hesperidium”,
which is for fruit that are produced by citrus trees. Hesperidin usually can be
found at the citrus sinensis peel. This is because the citrus sinensis peel and
membranous parts of these fruits contain the highest hesperidin concentrations.
Hesperidin actually isolated by French chemist Lebreton from the white inner
layer of citrus tree in 1828 for the first time.

           

 

 

 

 

2.1.1         
Benefit
hesperidin

From
some studies, hesperidin is also play a role in plant
defense. Hesperidin usually was used as a medicine by the people. Hesperidin
most often used for blood vessel either alone itself or in combination with
other bioflavonoid compounds. This is because hesperidin may reduce
inflammation. Hesperidin also may help blood vessels function better.  Besides, hesperidin also used to treat lymphedema
which a condition that involve fluid retention. It can be a
complication of breast cancer
surgery. Aside from the protective effects, hesperidin also may be able to
reduce a lack of appetite besides have minor anti-allergic properties.

           

            Glucosyl hesperidin is a particular subtype of
hesperidin. Glycosyl hesperidin has been shown to decrease the triglyceride levels
in people with excessively increase the levels in their blood. Beside, Glucosyl
hesperidin has also been shown to slightly decrease low density lipoprotein (LDL)
which is also known as bad cholesterol in those with unbalanced cholesterol
levels. Both of these can help to reduce the risk of developing
arteriosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.( Naturopathic Doctor (N.D.),2015)