Chapter2Reviewof LiteratureIn the introduction to the study I analysed thehistory of cricket and how gender biases are framed in the media in a verypatriarchal context. To portray the women differently than men the media use a variety of frames like framing ofattributes, framing of actions, framing of issues and framing ofresponsibility. As Kirk Hallahan (1999) suggests as a property of a message, aframe limits or defames the message’s meaning by shaping the inferences thatindividuals make about the message. Frames reflect judgments made by messagecreators or framers.
Some frames represent alternative valancing of information(i.e., putting information in either a positive or negative light, or valenceframing). Other frames involve the simple alternative phrasing of terms whichmeans to understand certain facts shown by the media a person must haveadequate knowledge about it.
(semantic framing). Hallahan (1999) also suggeststhe importance to understand the valence frame as it portrays certain aspectsof the media in a positive or negative light in this particular case it isgender in Indian cricket. The media is all about viewership and TRP rating. Themore viewership news channels get the more money it makes so the media willonly show programs what they want to show and how they want to show influencingthe public’s mind eventually.2.
1 Gendered politics Feminist theory provides a lens for the studyof women’s experiences in society. Feminist theory forms the basis for thestudy of the experiences of women in society and specifically for women’sstatus and position within that society believes (Scraton & Flintoff ,2013)According to Miriam. L Freeman (2006) Feminist thought assumes that women’sinterests and perspectives are valid in and of themselves. They are not inferioror secondary to those of men’s, nor should they be defined only in relation toor as deviation from men’s experiences. Several assumptions in traditionalsociological, psychological, historical and philosophical scholarship are oneof the criticisms which has emerged in feminist scholarship. Differences inmale and female sports participation areseen to be the result of socialization practices carried out by the basicinstitutions in any person’s life suchas the family, the media, and the school. According to Scraton, & Flintoff(2013) they suggest, girls aresocialized into feminine activities such as netball, gymnastics, or hockey andinto a female physicality, and boys are socialized into masculine sports suchas football, rugby, or cricket and into a male physicality as some girls stilldo not receive the same kind of encouragement as their brothers to be sociallyindependent and physically active in play activities and sports. This is particularly true in the Indian contextwhere sons and daughters are treated very differently.
As Dr. Maneesha Kotekarin theessay “A study in Gender and Sports (2013) suggests, Asinfant’s girls are handled more gently and protectively than boys. Boys arethrown into the air more often, given more toys requiring active play and theuse of motor skills, and allowed to explore more of their physical environmentsbefore being cautioned and constrained by their parents. James Beal and David Cosersuggestgirls are watched over more closely, evenbefore they start to walk. This pattern of protectiveness and constraintcontinues through childhood, and limits girls participation in sport activities(1986).Marxistfeminism identi?es gender inequalities as deriving from capitalism, class, andeconomic exploitation. The sexual division of labour is fundamental to thisapproach and focuses on how capital bene?ts from women’ s unpaid domestic labour,maintenance of the future labour force (childcare), and the day-to-day care ofmale laborers (Scraton, & Flintoff, 2013). According to Graceanne Killoransports generally is considered a male dominated field and receives moreattention from males it is well documented that women receive less coverage ascompared to men in the world of sports media (2017).
Killioran (2017) further adds not only dofemales receive less coverage in the world of media but female athletes areportrayed in a manner that creates the image of the woman first and the athletesecond which means the media is looking for attractiveness in the femaleathlete rather than performance. 2.2The Cult of the Indian Male CricketerAccordingto Karen Ayres Sports play a key role in creating and maintaining conceptionsof hegemonic masculinity. Boys and men have long used sports as a way toachieve a hetero-masculine identity (2008). An important aspect of hegemonicmasculinity is defining masculinity as “not feminine” (Gupta, 2013).
Accordingto R.W. Connell & James Messerschmidt hegemonic masculinity means aworldwide patriarchy of men over women (2005). Hegemonic Masclunity stress the power of menover women.
In India, cricket grew in an inherently hegemonic manner whereinpeople placed lower on the social scale followed those placed above them. Theintroduction of cricket by the British to Indian masses also saw the concurrentintroduction of a hegemonic masculinity. British rulers often exhibited avirulent hegemonic masculinity involving them defining themselves against the”effeminate” colonial other. Only men were allowed to play cricket and Indianmen were prohibited from playing with or against British. As Valerie Hanson suggests, Indian cricket hasalways displayed hegemonic male masculinity right from the time India gotpatriation in 1947 (2002). Later, this hyper masculinity became embodied incricketing figures such as Kapil Dev and Sunil Gavaskar) who were paid enormousamounts to be the spokespersons for various commercial brands. Take forexample, the advertisements for Palmolive shaving products featuring Kapil Dev.
Take for example the advertisements of Palmolive of Kapil Dev where he isframed as strong man who is shaving and all set to take on the world. He isalso seen with a beautiful woman at the end of the advertisement. Anotheradvertisement features Kapil Dev in the boost advertisement where he is seenrunning and looking very strong fit and muscular at the end of theadvertisement he drinks boost looking very strong. Emily Crick says playerslike Rahul Dravid, Sourav Ganguly and Sachin Tendulkar were the pioneers ofIndian cricket in the 2000’s and they were the main players who portrayed astrong form of hegemonic masculinity on and of the field to shape the publicopinion of people in India (2007).
2.3 Framing of the Indian women cricketers bythe Indian MediaAs Nicely (2007) states media framing involvesthe selection and salience given to various pieces of information, allowingcertain attributes to be highlighted and others to be excluded in acommunications context. The Indian media is very devaluing to woman just likeIndian society.
It always frames women in a negative or dependent role why arewoman given less coverage of sporting news programs than men? why is the Indianmedia so biased towards Woman these are some deep rooted problems etched deepinto our society. As Louise North (2012) suggests Along with the sexualisingand feminising of women in the sports media, women athletes are also regularlyinfantilised Infantilization occurs when women are referred to as ‘girls’ andtheir first names are used, whereas for male athletes, the term ‘men’ andsurnames are usually used in sports coverage. As Maley (2012) says gendermarking is also prevalent in sports coverage and occurs when the mediaidentifies a sporting competition as a ‘women’s’ sporting competition, or anathlete as a ‘woman’ athlete, in order to designate the event/athlete asinferior to a men’s competition or male athlete. As Hallahan (1999) interprets”to frame is to select some aspects of perceived reality and make them moresalient in the communicating text, in such a way as to promote a particularproblem definition, causal interpretation, moral evaluation and/or treatmentrecommendation for the item descend Privileging gender appropriate sport is evidentin media coverage of the 1992 and 1996 Olympic Games.
” Women who most featuredcompeted in the physically attractive sports of diving, swimming andgymnastics, rather than hard contact sports and sports involving strength andpower. In contrast, men’s sporting events are often not gender marked andclassified as ‘the/an event’ and male athletes are simply designated asathletes and not gender marked (Killoran, 2017). The way the media frames an Indian cricketerwill be influenced by a person’s friends,relatives or even family because people talk and remember what the media hasbroadcast If the athlete has been portrayed negatively it will be remembered bythe viewer for a long time.
Indian media has always been harsh towards Indianwoman cricketers. According to the ICCwebsite out of 31 games in the ICC women’s cricket world cup 2017 only 10 gameswhere aired on live tv in India the rest was only broadcast on the channelswebsite and on Hotstar. Due to lesscoverage given to women cricketers in India less audience tend to be awareabout the happenings in the cricketing world of women.
Due to this Womancricket is not so popular in India as compare to Men’s cricket. The audience may see this under-representationof female athletes as a sign that women’s sports are not as significant orexciting as men’s sports (Nicely, 2007). This imbalance portrays the idea that female athletes and women’s sportsare inferior when compared to men’s sports and male athletes (Nicely,2007). Overall Indian women receive a lot of negativecoverage in the Indian media.
According to Jfranetti (2006) despite the hugenumber of female athletes present in the sporting arena today the mass media isyet to catch up. For the last decade there has been a surge of female athletestaking part in sporting events all over the world. But the mass media just doesnot seem to be giving enough coverage to the female athletes. As Christopher.
JMaley (2012) states that the type of quantity and quality given to femaleathletes is very poor in todays media. When female athletes receive negativecoverage, it creates stereotypes among the people that females are not goodathletes as compared to their male counterparts. 2.4 Stereotyping of the Indian Women in SportThe Nike commercialwhich was an advertisement made by Nike corporationwhich was released on December 13,2016 was an all-women commercial and just gave coverage time of 8 seconds toIndian woman’s cricket, the rest of the time given in the commercialadvertisement was to other sports. Whereas male cricketers have full 2 minutesof time and more length of time given to them more than 15 ads have been madeby Nike for the male cricketers. Itis no mystery that advertising uses gender roles as a means of promotingproducts. Advertising does impact the way society perceives gender biasestowards women athletes. As Fountaine, & McGregor (2001) suggest more andmore ads are being made in the 21st century showing womenempowerment and women in dominating roles of society.
Additionally Louisa North(2012) says various studies, typically using content analysis, have found thatwomen’s sports advertisements are under-represented in the sports media andlargely framed as less exciting and less newsworthy than men’s sports Previous literature notes that advertising maybe moving away from stereotypical portrayals of men and women while otherstudies suggest role portrayals as getting worse says (Espisona, 2010) As Hanson (2012) suggests even thoughit is possible that advertisements mirror societal ideals, gender roleportrayals can still have consequential notions of reinforcement of social andgender stereotypes on society. Additionally Hanson (2012) says men are portrayed as bigger, faster,stronger, and overall superior to women in college sports as well asprofessional, projecting men as the stereotypical images of athletic icons.Conversely, stereotypical femininity, like the feminine caretaker, representsthe image of the female athlete. Indiansociety in particular reinforces stereotypes against woman in many aspects ofIndian society. In many developing countries all over the world women do facemany hurdles to participate in sports.
One of these is the persistence ofstrictly enforced gender roles and legal and cultural restrictions on movementfrom home to school or from home to the workplace. In India, for example, wherealthough women like wrestler Sonika Kaliraman and tennis star Sania Mirza arepaving the way for women in sports, girls do not participate widely inathletics (Kotekar, 2013). As Sardana (2014) points out Equality in salariesand allowances with their men counterparts continues to elude women’s cricket.In Sri Lanka, which hosted the ICC T20 World Cup in 2012, the per diem of womenplayers was € 37 compared to the men players who were being paid € 62. Theprize money for the match championship offered by ICC was just € 37,000 forwomen whereas the Men’s event would have been for €6,19,000. The disparity in salaries coupled with the time and physical effortrequired for sport might de motivate young women from taking up sport not toforget societal norms. 2.
5 Is the Cricketing Board of India SupportingWomen Cricketers India has seen great male cricketer’s likeKapil Dev, Sunil Gavaskar Sachin Tendulkar and Rahul Dravid just to name a few.All of them carry themselves with a lot of confidence but the women cricketersare hardly seen in media or advertisement’s points out (Scraton, & Flintoff2013). This is due to the lack of confidence support and even money given toIndian woman be it by parents or themselves. According to an article on espncricketinfo.com, Just before the ICC Women’s cricket world cupin July 2017 the women’s team squad was not announced to the media or thepublic and prior to this the women’s team had played three one day series andhad not received their due payment. Espncricketinfo.comarticle further suggests that Internal reasons resulting in the comparativelyslack interest in promoting women’s cricket can be attributed to the mindset ofthose who control the affairs of the sport i.
e. BCCI in India and ICCinternationally. BCCI’s response to a Sports Ministry’s suggestion togive at least 10 per cent of its total membership to women in the decision-makingbodies in the Board goes on to express that it is not possible to have womensitting in judgment of the men’s team. Notably 24-member working committee, itsdecision making arm, does not have any woman on it as MMK Sardan (2014) pointsout in his paper Economic Potential ofWomen Cricket Waiting to be Exploited Sardana (2014) points out in hispaper the BCCI has not set up an anti-sexual harassment committee for its womencricketer’s the BCCI believes no sexualharassment happens to women cricketers in India. Sardana (2014) also points outthat there is no BCCI there is no woman member on the board as yet as several politicians and lawmakers of thecountry are present in the BCCI but none of the take women’s cricket thatseriously compare to men’s cricket. Even at a time when performance ofmen’s cricket team was disgraced in the world cup in the Caribbean’s in 2007,an eminent socialite and adman Prahlad Kakar ridiculed women cricketers statingthat they even do not know how to play cricket and he could not watch them playeven two hours (Sardana, 2014). Due to people making comments like this women’scricket has not received that much attention as compare to their malecounterparts. Women cricketers in Indiausually come from lower middle-class economic backgrounds, and join cricket fortheir livelihood due to lack of other alternatives.
68 As Gupta (2013) pointsout, the current social and economic environment contributes to the relegationof women to a subordinate position in Indian cricket. As Gupta (2013) suggeststhe lack of opportunities created by the BCCI for women to take up cricket as acareer is only becoming more and more in spite of the women reaching the finalof the ICC Women’s cricket world cup in 2017. Training has to begin at thegrassroot level for real progress to take place at the moment the situationremains bleak for women cricketers in India.