CHAPTER2: LITERATURE REVIEW2.1IntroductionLiterature reviews of previousresearch was studied to have a better understanding on this research’s topicand the findings will be analyzed as to determine whether social media becomingthe effective tool to influence youth’s voting behavior towards political landscape.
According Cheung, Lee & Chan (2015) stated social media are onlineplatforms that facilitate the construction of social networks or socialrelations among people who share similar interests and backgrounds. When peoplejoin social media, they make connections with their social media’s friends andseek for different public opinion. Researcher believes that social media createan online social environment where social media users can easily observe whatothers’ perception and opinion the online platforms (Zhou, 2011).
2.2Youth’s Social Media Consumption New media scholars argue that youth also known as Generation Y are not really interested in traditional media such as reading newspaper (Lee and Wei, 2008) andsearch about political news through social media which provide onlinecommunication and online political participation (Tom P. Bakker, 2011).Besides, social media is the best medium to examine youth trends on searchingpolitical information because they are born to be tech-savvy whereby they arevery much interest on technology as they are familiar with technology. A PewResearch Center report from 2013 discovered that Facebook is the most preferredsocial media platform of youth in terms of numbers of registered users. A studyin Africa by Kassam (2013) had discussed various aspects of social media use byyouth. He reveals that youth use social media as a source of political, social,educational, economic, and cultural information yet another few researchersBuhari, Ahmad, and HadiAshara (2014) also discovered young people between theages of 15 and 29 years preferred to use Facebook to search for information.According to Pew Research Center(2015), in the year of 2014, there are total of 74% of internet users who usesthe social media which the growing ubiquity of cell phones, especially the riseof smartphones.
“Nearly 57% of them use internet regularly and spend 22.3online hours per week.” (Nielsen, 2011). According to Douglas (2012), Facebookis ranked first among the most popular social media that visited by Internetusers in Malaysia. About 90% of Malaysians use Facebook as their main socialmedia network and they just only using it for entertainment. The existence ofsocial media has created a more democratic sphere among the citizens. Forexample, by using a finger, a touch or a press on the button, Malaysian citizenis able to voice out their opinion, to give feedbacks and thus making it into achain reaction between communities in Malaysia whether it is about global topicor it is about local political issues.
Social media had allow youth to accessinformation, send messages, offer views and opinions, and deliberate overcritical issues (Normah, Faridah, Wan Amizah, Fauziah, Chang & Maizatul,2011). Aindrila, Nikhil & Mousumi(2014) found that new and existing voters go online to seek information,address question and, most importantly, to form opinions. The same is widelyinfluenced by the social media chatter, information provided by political parties,the ability to participate in a dialogue with the voters, and the overallsentiment around the leaders up for voting. They seek for asking opinion, shareinformation for other or from others and then only they will make a decision.That is why many opinion leaders nowadays use Facebook for discussing specificissues as they would use social media to protest against government policy byposting a status on Facebook with strong justification in order to influencepublic.
The general election in 2008, statistics showed that blogging was aneffective vehicle to attract more socio-political cyberspace electioninfo-sharing and debate, but the trend has moved to Facebook and Twitter forinformation seeking, especially for issues related to politics (Ismail, Syamsul,Hasmzh & Zanuddin, 2008).2.3Social media and PoliticsAccording to Ravi Gupta and HughBrooks (2013), a key opinion leader is a starting point in the social mediawhose behavior and content influences the behavior of others in the onlineplatform. This has shown that youths relied a lot on social media and theinformation on the social media exactly have the power to influence them due toadvanced technology nowadays.
It has the power to help youth to be worktogether or making new relationship between one and other but it can alsodamage a relationship easily if they receive wrong information or wrong advice.The journal of Mohd Azizuddin & Mohd Sani (2014) studied that, among someof the countries such as China, China had make the social media as their maintool in spreading the news to its citizen. As China has a huge amount ofpopulation, researcher can observe that social media tend to be veryinfluential towards citizens. In Malaysia’s perspective, most ofthe political parties have used the traditional media to propagate and delivertheir messages to the voters before the emergence of social media. Severalpolitical scholars have written on relevant issue on elections and politics inMalaysia. Most of these scholar claimed that the message delivery of themainstream media during elections has shown that they consistently portrayedthe ruling political party.
Due to nowadays power of social media, the socialmedia has helped to develop the public sphere with several elements such as thewidespread internet access and relative freedom on the internet that created anonline news portal in Malaysia such as MalaysiaKini (Larry, 2010). This servedas the keystone into reforming the structure of democracy in Malaysia whichallows freedom of speech. One of the online news portals which is MalaysiaKini,it has represent a tool for democratization in Malaysia which enables public toexchange and share opinions (Rosyidah, 2015). This social media platformprovides useful information to be disseminated publicly without governmentinterference. According to a journal that wrote by Steele (2009), this study isfocuses on taking an approach and analyzes how independent journalists atMalaysiakini and questions of democracy and social change. Therefore, this researchermentioned that any other social media or online news portal previously used toprovide critical of political case as an example, certain group fight forjustice, reporting certain politician’s statements, showing photos andproviding up-to-date news. This feature has changed the way the public opinionin consuming news and allowing public to have more credible information andobserve different perspective on the same issues in terms of politicalcommunication. As evidenced by Rosyidah (2015)study, she further claim that social media and online news portals promotesdemocratization by enhancing civil liberties and helping to frame theconference and agenda for public policies.
For example, with MalaysiaKini istrying to grab the citizen attention, its widespread effect was quite effectivethrough the usage of social media like blogging, Facebook, Twitter which aremaking more news exposure to the mass audiences. Some of the previousresearcher Crouch (1993), Jesudason (1995) & Schedler (2002) had statedMalaysia as a soft authoritarian, pseudo democracy, with a complex democracyand guiding by electoral authoritarianism due to the media coverage inMalaysia, the mainstream media works in preference of the interests of thegovernment and is strongly biased (Cherian, 2005). For example, in Malaysia,some of the media company was owned by government which they used to censorshipcertain news. So, to achieve the democracy goal in this kind of environmentthat are fully covered by agenda setting from old media whereby the goal isdifficult to achieve. In addition, this is why social media is more reliablethan main stream media that social media is a platform that allows voters togiving out their opinion and different point of view which they willing to put effortof participation in election.In fact, the social media providesa platform for communication, mobilization, information and cooperation tothose youths who are already interested in specific fields such as youth voterswill search information about political news before the election started. Whilesocial media as an information platform, it makes some worthy of attentionwhich bring some contribution to buildi the political awareness and discussionof political issues (Derishs, 2002). And also according to the researcher,Rosyidah (2011) she stated access to information is an important aspect ofdemocracy.
However, youth was borned in digital world, the information theyrecieve can empower them by “ensuring that youth have the tools they need to participatein the decision making structures that affect their voting behaviour.”Therefore, youths are able to access relevant information which is a centralcharacteristic of deliberative democracy which they are already familiar withsocial media (Coleman and Wright, 2008). As a result, social media is a mediaof always internet-connected, online platform that allows youths users togather and analyses public opinion towards public sphere as they are makinginteractive by giving out opinion, point of view or sharing out their ownopinion without any hesitation.2.
4Credibility and Reliability of news on Social MediaDiscussion on credibility hasfocused on three perspectives of communication: medium credibility, messagecredibility, and source credibility (Metzger et al., 2003). Medium credibilityis the perceived level of credibility that individual users have of a specificmedium, such as newspapers, television, the Internet, or blogs (Sundar , 2001). Message credibility, on the other hand, is the perceivedcredibility of the communicated message itself, such as informational quality,accuracy, or currency (Metzger et al., 2003). Source credibility is seen as theexpertise or trustworthiness of the source as the likelihood to providecredible information (Flanagin & Metzger, 2003).
For a source to beregarded as credible and trustworthy, Rosenberry & Vicker (2009) maintainthat the source has to be trustworthy to the receiver of the information. Ifover time, a source of information is regarded as always passing the test ofnews believability then that source can be regarded as trustworthy. McQuail(2007) said that some trust is required for a news source to be effective, andpeople do not pay attention to media sources that they do not trust foraccurate and believable information dissemination. According to Baran & Davis(2003), high credibility communicators produce increased amounts of attitudechange; low-credibility communicators produce less attitude change, but thetrustworthiness of the communicator is what acts as a persuasive power of themessage. Social networking does not have the same level of trustworthiness thattraditional mass media can boast of, and some scholars like McQuail (2007)argue that this is because of the instability of the internet as a developingmedium and tool for news dissemination. Severin & Tankard (2010) explainthat the credibility of social networks is shaky because many web pages aremixing information and advertising in ways that typically did not happen in thetraditional media.
2.5The Social Media as a tool towards Democracy The social media becoming themarkers of participation for democracy issues, the function of social mediabecome the interaction bridge between government policy and public (Zaller,1992). Due to the growth rate population of the social media issue, these usersbecoming more active to discuss the government Issue. User utilized theFacebook or Twitter as a platform for discussing the government issue, due toless restriction and boundaries from any authorities to take action againstboth social media, therefore more user treat the Facebook and Twitter as aparticipation tools to discussed the government policy (Zukin, Keeter,Andolina, Jenkins, & Delli-Carpini, 2006). Since the power of social media that can reach the mass audiences, morepoliticians started using the social media to promote their strength andmanifesto to the public.
Jasmize (2014) point out throughthe research that Facebook can gain back the confidence of the public andpolitician using this opportunity to influence public to retain their right,therefore Facebook is a biggest threat for implementation of government policy.Those who belong to a political group with in Facebook can receive mobilizinginformation that may not be available elsewhere and can encounter moreopportunities to engage in political activities. A similar scenario may applyto civic groups who have a presence in the online network. An important shareof the civic and political impact of Facebook, then should occur within groupsdeveloped by users and organizations. At the same time, increased participationin online and of?ine groups typically helps to build trusting relationshipsamong members, further enhancing the potential of Facebook to increase socialcapital (Kobayashi et al., 2006). Facebook provided a space to gather everyuser to involve in a conversation regarding political issue and opportunitiesto engage in political activities (Kobayashi et al.
, 2006). Hence, Facebook areconvenient the user freely access the information no matter where they are.Facebook becoming the bridge ofinteraction between the politicians and the public, hence Facebook provide morespace for user to expand their ideas and thought, therefore Facebook userbecoming more active to utilize Facebook to discuss politics issue rather thanothers social media and the less restriction from the government. 2.6Cognitive Level of Youth towards Political LandscapeYouths are partners in nationbuilding.
Politics and nation building are very important in future. Politicalsocialization of youth involved looking into the influence of youths’ politicalliteracy, maturity, leadership experiences and their surrounding politicallandscape. Political party use social mediato share information is to decrease in the cost of acquiring information; andsecond, to increase in youth’s ability to process political information whichin turn enhances participation (Research gate, 2015). In short, it means thatyouths will have more political resources allowing them to deal with politicalissues and must understand how democracy works in their society.
According to Qualman (2009) hedefines social media’s percentage is growing up every day and it is current topone use for Internet. In addition, Social media is defined as “a group ofInternet-based applications that build on the technological foundations of Web2.0, which allow the creation and exchange Effects of Social Media Use onRelationship Satisfaction 4 of User Generated Content” (Kaplan & Haenlein,2010) site by Porter, Mitchell, Meghan, Shinosky, and Gordon (2010).
In aresearch done by Ali (2011) he stated that Internet has growth the way mostpeople in the worldwide lifestyle. Besides, the social media’s aspects whichare interaction and participation will definitely have the power to affectyouth (Obama, 2008) site by Harfous (2009). According to Mooney (2009) site byBiswajit & Sahoo (2011) defines social media’s email, instant messaging,video, photo sharing and comment posting this all tools is help people tocommunicate and interact with each other. One of the advantages of Facebook isthat it allows youth to interact straightly, and so they can receive instantfeedback regarding comments, reviews and actions implemented by the government.Therefore, it is a highly effective channel of communication that helps youthto gain a majority people’s opinions to certain issue.2.7Theoretical frameworkBased on Blumler and Katz (1974), uses and gratification theory says that themedia users actually are in an active role in selecting and utilizing themedia. Uses and gratification is a theory of media to study and test how peopleconsume the media and gain the knowledge from the content.
Theorists alsosuggest that the users will find a media source that can best fit their needs.In other meaning which is what people do with media instead of media does topeople. Uses and gratification is contradictory to the magic bullet theorywhich the audiences are always passive. There are several categories of needsand gratification in this theory such as cognitive needs and affective needs.To further discuss the research cognitive whereby this is the most suitableneeds to conduct in this research. Normally people search the media for knowledgeand information, different people have different needs, therefore people whoneed to know more about television news and they will search any platform togain more knowledge about it. Beside that internet which is a platform thatincluded trillion of information around the world.
According to the previous researchdone by Farrugia (2013), nowadays, people tend to use social media such asFacebook and twitter to satisfy their social integrative need as an informationseeker. Therefore this theory can be applied in this situation. The existenceof the of alternative media and television industry had affect and mightthreaten the government policies and the safety of the nation due to the freeaccess information platform and the variety of choices for the public,therefore government has establish few laws which restricted the media companycontent may against the government policies. According to previous researchdone by Daniel, Stephen & Miron (2008), they found out that between 31% and50% of the respondents said they use the Internet weekly for in-depthinformation. However people nowadays utilize the alternative media which issocial media to search for more information and the audiences no longer passivewhich influence by the help of social media audiences has the right to choosethe content based on their interest.2.
8ConclusionBased on the literature reviewpart, it had emphasized the topic into five parts to discuss about it such asyouth’s social media consumption, social media and politics, credibility andreliability of news on social media, social media as a tool towards democracyand cognitive level of youth towards political landscape. As a conclusion,there have different perception towards different topics between previousresearch and this study. Therefore, it is interesting to find out the findingsand to investigate impacts of social media towards youths’ voting behaviour.Last but not least, it is an interesting topic for doing research and it’sfinding of the results.