Chapter10 of the Das Kapital, written by Karl Marx represents the protracted study andinfluences of thirty years of experience that the author has a share inrelation with historical and social forces along with a Capitalist economy thatshares the interaction of the individuals within and outside of trade. Thisvolume was published in the 18th century when the division between the classeswas more profound, and industrial labor was more terrible. It must keep in mindthat all Karl Marx’s work in Das Kapital was to revolutionize the industriallabor and concerned system that were linked with to industries at thatparticular time. It also accounts for the critique of a system that hasestablished such kind of squalor for so many of the poor workers in Europe.This paper will critically analyze the Karl Marx, ‘The Working Day.’Individualsmostly believe that labor power was sold and bought at its value, as resoluteby their work timings, which are necessary to produce it. However, the numberof workers needed to accomplish a particular task was not necessarily equal tothe amount of the work that they have done on that specific day. Most of thetimes, that working hours exceeds, of which author quoted as, ‘The time morethan the necessary labor time is surplus labor.
‘ One needs to be sure that theworking was itself a mutable quantity, which varies according to the quantityof excess work, but it can vary within certain limits. One account that therewas no real or least perimeter; which measure the excess of work, which can bein any organization or industry. The author believes that in a capitalistsystem, by doing this surplus work, there was no advantage to the employees, ofwhich he states the reason of ‘Capitalist system,’ and the maximum wasconstrained by the moral constraints and physical limitations, such as the needto fulfill other responsibilities.
Toaccount this matter, the author believes that the capitalists have a veryconcise view, of which he states, “As a capitalist, he is only capitalpersonified. His soul is the soul of capital (Marx and Arthur).” Despitethat, this capital’s drive was to enhance the maximum work (surplus-value) bywhich there were a maximum means of production of merchandise by absorbing asmuch surplus labor as they could.
Marx states that the worker was robbing thecapitalist if he uses his disposable time for himself. It means that the onlything that concerns the capitalist was maximum possible benefit from theiremployees (worker’s use-value). The majority of the experience accounts forEngland, which was once a center of the industrial revolution, and because ofthis revolution, there was much urban degradation. There were many theories inparticular to economies, capitalist, the work day and nature of the work, whichin general discuss the problems, which was still present in the 21st century,like the economy, regarding capitalism.
Oneaccounts that, in ‘The Working Day’ author discusses the important theme of the’class tension.’ According to him, the problems and conflict between theworkers and capitalist were no a newer one, because it has been continued fromthe past centuries, in fact, it was more common in the current era. He believesthat the history repeats itself just like the older time when the classconflict was considered as been a major debatable theme. One the main reasonthat Marx believes tension was the asymmetry between the exchange-value anduse-value of the labor. Similarly, the capitalists are on the stronger side,just like in earlier times in particular economic- class conflict.
The upperhand permits them to put more force and define what the employees will be paid.Aside from that, Marx believes that this upper hand doesn’t allow them toalways ‘bargaining’ in perceptive to their particular interest, of which theseorganizations believe that they have power because of capitalist dominance inthe society. Correspondingly, these upper hand societies have what they need,i.e., regarding the property laws which are defined to support the needs ofthese capitalists, and such mode of manufacturing imitates the financialstructure of capitalism.
Marxbelieves that such structure was going to fulfill the needs of thesecapitalists unless it self-destructs because it was evident that thesecapitalists will never change or behave differently and such kind of tensionwould always remain among the workers and them. Marx states that these capitalistshave the desire to gain whatever remains and whatever they could, of which hequoted as ‘capitalists have desires to gain the surplus- values.’ To attaintheir potential (desires), they would try to exploit the workers by not givingthem the true wage to what they produce. Marx quoted, ‘To survive, thecapitalists must exploit.’ The main idea behind such opinion was that toovercome the problems of the minimum wage, hardships, and tension of theworkers; there was a need to welfare them (band-aids). This wellbeing was onlygoing to happen if the structure of the capitalism was removed from thesociety. Marx wasa firm believer for the self-liberation of the employed class through theannihilation of the unfair practices of capitalism which was fecund even in21st century. One realizes that the principles of the product exchange, fromperceptive of both sides, are equally valid, from an insight of Marx.
Toaccount force, was not an option because this concern continued from previouscenturies and throughout the history, the capitalist production creates thetension between the workers and employees. There was the need to highlight theeconomic and social inequalities that influenced onto the government, pushingfor fair dissemination, because there was a possibility that individualsclaimed to be proletariat awakening in perceptive to Marx’s revolutionarytheory.